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KEY D: Subkey in Juncus

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1 Leaves flattened, narrowly elliptic in cross-section.
..2 Leaves with incomplete septae; heads about 10 mm diameter; tips of dehisced capsules united; [subgenus Juncus, section Iridifolii]
..2 Leaves with complete septae; heads about 12 mm diameter; tips of dehisced capsules split; [subgenus Juncus, section Ozophyllum]
1 Leaves terete, not at all flattened; [subgenus Juncus, section Ozophyllum].
....3 Plants strictly cespitose, without any short, hard, knotty rhizomes; tepals lanceolate
....3 Plants with at least some short, hard, knotty rhizomes; tepals lanceolate-subulate.
......4 Capsules shorter than the tepals, clearly included within the tepals at maturity
......4 Capsules equaling or exceeding the tepals, exserted from or only barely included within the tepals at maturity.
........5 Capsule valves separating at the apex at maturity; stamens 6.
..........6 Heads 6-20 flowered, 6-9 mm diameter; auricles cartilaginous, 0.5-1.0 mm long
..........6 Heads 25-100 flowered, 10-14 mm diameter; auricles membranous, 2.5-4.0 mm long
........5 Capsule valves remaining united at the apex after dehiscence; stamens 3.
............ 7 Culms 4-8 mm in diameter near the base, usually > 80 cm tall; inflorescences usually > 15 cm tall, with > 25 heads; largest leaf blades > 25 cm long and > 3 mm in diameter
............ 7 Culms 1-3 mm in diameter near the base, usually < 80 cm tall; inflorescences usually < 10 cm tall, with < 25 heads; largest leaf blades < 25 cm long and 1-2 mm in diameter.
............ ..8 Uppermost cauline leaf blade much shorter than its sheath; tepals reddish to reddish brown; outer tepals significantly longer than the inner tepals; basal leaf sheaths and cataphylls deep reddish purple
............ ..8 Uppermost cauline leaf blade equaling or longer than its sheath; tepals green to straw-colored; outer tepals and inner tepals of similar length; basal leaf sheaths and cataphylls straw-colored to brown.
............ ....9 Heads lobulate; mature capsule 2.0-3.0 mm long
............ ....9 Heads spherical, not lobulate; mature capsule 3.0-4.5 mm long
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