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Key M1: monocots with linear, scale, or narrow leaves (or grasses)

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1 Primary inflorescences of spikelets, these consisting of 1-2-many reduced florets, each subtended by 1-2 scales (and also enclosed in a sac or perigynium in Carex in CYPERACEAE), arrayed spirally or distichously, the spikelets then themselves arrayed in various dense or diffuse secondary or tertiary inflorescences; perianth absent, or reduced to chaff, scales, paddles, or bristles.
  2 Leaf sheaths continuous, lacking a split or only irregularly split in age; leaves usually 3-ranked (sometimes reduced to a sheath with a small scale at the summit; stems triangular in ×-section (or roundish), usually with a pith; flowers spirally arrayed in the spikelet (or distichously arrayed, in e.g. Cyperus, Dulichium, Kyllinga); anthers basifixed
  2 Leaf sheaths generally split lengthwise on the side opposite the leaf blade; leaves usually 2-ranked; stems round or flattened in ×-section, usually hollow; flowers distichously arrayed in the spikelet; anthers versatile
1 Primary inflorescences of dense spikes, spadices, heads, glomerules, or a compound corymb of helicoid cymes; perianth present, often very small and variously colored.
    3 Leaves equitant (the leaves distichous, in a fan-like array, e.g. Iris, each leaf clasping the next above in a basal fold, this uniting above so that the main leaf blade, above the basal fold, has only the lower [abaxial] leaf surface visible because of fusion of the ‘upper’ surfaces).
      4 Inflorescence a very densely flowered spike (spadix), appearing lateral, 1 per plant; fresh plant strongly aromatic
      4 Inflorescence either more diffuse, 1 or several per plant, or terminal and cone-like; fresh plant not aromatic.
        5 Inflorescence brownish or tan, spherical, ovoid, or cylindrical, with numerous scale-like bracts arrayed in a cone; flowers individually conspicuous, a single yellow (to white) flower at a time emerging from each of the scales
             7 Inflorescence or flower groups subtended by well-developed, green or scarious spathaceous bracts; inflorescence either a fan-shaped pair of cymes, or seemingly racemose, or solitary
             7 Inflorescence or flower groups not subtended by spathes (though individual flowers may be subtended by small green bracts); inflorescence a raceme, panicle, or corymb.
               8 Inflorescence a corymb of helicoid cymes; corolla yellow, densely tomentose; roots bright red (Lachnanthes) or white to brown (Lophiola).
                 9 Stamens 3, longer than the (ascending) tepals inner 3 tepals > 2 mm longer than the outer 3 tepals; rhizomes and roots of fresh plants bright red
                 9 Stamens 6, shorter than the (recurved) tepals; inner 3 and outer 3 tepals equal in length; rhizomes at roots of fresh plants white to brown
               8 Inflorescence a terminal raceme (the flowers attached to the rachis in groups of 3 or more in Triantha in TOFIELDIACEAE); corolla white, cream, or yellow, glabrous; roots white or brown.
                   10 Flowers white (yellow in Harperocallis, endemic to FL Panhandle); capsule septicidal
    3 Leaves not equitant, sometimes distichous, upper and lower surfaces both present.
                     11 Inflorescence either a linear spike, terminal, the thicker female portion below, the thinner male portion above, or an ovoid, hemispheric, spherical head or glomerule, 1 or several per plant
                       12 Inflorescence a linear spike, terminal, the thicker female portion below, the thinner male portion above
                          13 Flowers in a single head terminating an elongate scape; leaves basal (often with 1-2 much smaller leaves or bladeless sheaths on the lower part of the scape); inflorescence white, tan, pale yellow, gray, or blackish, the head usually as broad as or broader than long, involucrate
                          13 Flowers in multiple heads, not scapose; leaves basal and usually also prominently cauline; inflorescence green, tan, brown, or reddish, the head spherical, not involucrate.
                            14 Flowers unisexual, the male flowers in a terminal head, the female flowers in heads below the male along a usually zigzag stem
                     11 Individual flowers solitary or in more diffuse inflorescences; perianth present, at least one whorl petal-like in size, color, and texture.
                              15 Flowers bilaterally symmetrical; stamen 1 or 2; tepals 6; perianth often differentiated into a lip and 5 petaloid tepals
                              15 Flowers radially symmetrical (sometimes weakly bilaterally symmetrical); stamens 6 (rarely 3); tepals usually 6 (rarely 3), when 6, either undifferentiated (6 tepals) or differentiated into 3 petals and 3 sepals.
                                  17 Leaves (actually cladophylls) clustered, in whorls of (1-) 2-20 (-25); fruit a berry; perianth undifferentiated, of 6 yellow, white, or green tepals
                                  17 Leaves alternate; fruit a capsule; perianth either differentiated, the 3 petals yellowish-green or maroon, or undifferentiated, the 6 tepals white, blue, or purplish.
                                    18 Plants terrestrial, erect; stems and leaves lacking a scaly indumentum; flower solitary, or several to many in heads or racemose cymes; perianth undifferentiated, the 6 tepals white, blue, or purplish
                                    18 Plants either epiphytic and pendulous in festoons, or terrestrial, wetland, or aquatic and sprawling; stems and leaves with or without a scaly indumentum; flowers solitary and axillary; perianth differentiated, the 3 petals either yellowish-green or maroon.
                                       19 Plants epiphytic, pendulous in festoons; stems and leaves densely covered by silvery scales; petals yellowish-green
                                       19 Plants of moist to wet habitats, sprawling or aquatic; stems and leaves not covered by silvery scales; petals maroon
                                16 Leaves (at least the larger) > 25 mm long, linear or narrowly lanceolate; leaves basal, basally disposed (or rarely mostly or entirely cauline).
                                             22 Inflorescence or flower groups subtended by well-developed, green or scarious spathaceous bracts; inflorescence either an umbel, or fan-shaped pair of cymes, or seemingly racemose, or solitary.
                                             22 Inflorescence or flower groups not subtended by spathes (though individual flowers may be subtended by small green bracts; inflorescence a raceme or panicle.
                                                        27 Inflorescence a terminal raceme, the flowers (fruits) in whorls of 3; perianth differentiated into showy petals and green sepals, the petals white; leaf not differentiated into a sheath and blade separated by a ligule; fruit an aggregate of achenes
                                                        27 Inflorescence a terminal raceme or spike, the flowers (fruits) alternate; perianth not differentiated, consisting of 3 or 6 green or yellow-green tepals; leaf differentiated into an open sheath and blade, with a ligule separating them; fruit an aggregate of achenes or follicles.
                                                                   32 Perianth not differentiated, the 6 segments similar in color, shape, and size, of various colors (sometimes pink).
                                                                     33 Tepals brown or green, not at all yellow, white, or otherwise more brightly colored; inflorescence branched and complex
                                                                     33 Tepals white, cream, pink, greenish-yellow, yellow, orange, pink, blue, or blue-brown; inflorescence either a terminal umbel, subtended by spathes or bracts, or a terminal raceme or panicle (or a terminal corymb in Ornithogalum in HYACINTHACEAE), not subtended by spathes or bracts.
                                                                           36 Tepals 0.2-1.0 0.2-1.2 (-2.0) cm long, white, cream, yellow, blue, or blue-brown; anthers basifixed (attached at the base) or dorsifixed (attached at the back).
                                                                                38 Perianth white, cream, or yellow, farinose-roughened on the outer surface; leaves typically > 8, spreading to slightly ascending (often forming a flattish rosette); anthers basifixed (attached at the bottom)
                                                                                  39 Styles 1, lobed only in the upper portion if at all; fruit either loculicidal capsules or berry-like; tepals blue, pink, or white with a broad green central stripe.
                                                                                  39 Styles 3, separate to the base; fruit a septicidal capsules (sometimes then also secondarily loculicidal); tepals white, greenish, yellowish, or pink.
                                                                                        42 Inflorescences bracteate, with bracts subtending individual pedicels and (if they are present) branches of the inflorescence; tepals white, greenish-white, or cream.
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