Flora of the Southeastern United States
2022 Edition

Colors

Data mode

Key to Pityopsis

1 Basal leaves shorter than to equaling the stem leaves; middle and upper stem leaves similar in size to one another, 1-20 mm wide.
..2 Leaves and stem glabrate, not silky pubescent; leaves 0.8-1.5 mm wide; [fall line Sandhills, from sc. NC south to c. AL]
..2 Leaves and stems silky pubescent; leaves 2-20 mm wide; [se. TN, or s. NJ northward, or FL].
....3 Peduncles and phyllaries moderately to densely stipitate-glandular; [Mountains of TN]
....3 Peduncles and phyllaries not stipitate-glandular (or only sparsely and minutely so); [Coastal Plain].
......4 Stems zigzag (noticeably bent at each node); [Panhandle FL]
......4 Stems straight; [either s. NJ northward or FL peninsula].
........5 Involucres 8-13 mm high; disk florets >30; stem leaves few, soft, and obtuse or slightly acute at the apex; basal leaves broadly oblanceolate, often persistent, narrowing to the cauline leaves; [c. and s. FL peninsula (Martin, Okeechobee, Palm Beach, and St. Lucie counties)]
........5 Involucres 5-9 mm high; disk florets 15-29; stem leaves dense, stiff and sharply pointed at apex; basal leaves narrow, similar to the cauline leaves, usually not persistent.
..........6 Leaves ascending, 6-10 mm wide, not falcate; [FL peninsula]
..........6 Leaves divergent from the stem, 3-7 mm wide, falcate; [s. NJ northward]
1 Basal leaves much longer than the stem leaves; stem leaves strongly reduced upward, the upper stem leaves much smaller than middle stem leaves, usually the largest stem leaves > 5 mm wide.
............7 Heads < 10, often only 1-6; cauline leaves few, generally 2-7; [distinctly wetland in habitat and typically spring-flowering]; [sw. GA, s. AL, and the FL Panhandle]
............7 Heads > 10; cauline leaves many; [primarily upland in habitat and fall-flowering]; [collectively widespread in our area].
..............8 Peduncles and upper stem densely glandular-hairy (stipitate-glandular); phyllaries densely glandular-hairy; involucres 4.5-8 mm high; lower leaves < 10 mm wide.
................9 All stem leaves silky pubescent; lower stems pubescent, with no visible glands; [widespread in our area]
................9 Lower leaves silky pubescent, the mid to upper stem leaves glabrate and evidently stipitate glandular along the margins; stems glandular to the base; [sc. GA south into Panhandle FL]
..............8 Peduncles and upper stem eglandular to sparsely glandular; phyllaries eglandular, or the inner phyllaries sparsely to densely glandular, at least distally; involucres 5-14 mm high; lower leaves up to 20 mm wide.
..................10 Involucres 12-14 mm high; disc florets > 30; ray florets 13-25; flowering plants robust, often 50-100 cm tall; largest basal leaves on sterile shoots 15-30 cm long, 5-10 mm wide; largest stem leaves 5-11 cm long, 3-5 mm wide
..................10 Involucres 5-11 (-13) mm high; disc florets 15-29; ray florets 5-18; flowering plants often less robust, 30-60 cm tall; largest basal leaves on sterile shoots 10-20 cm long; 1-5 mm wide; largest stem leaves 2-6 cm long, 1-4 mm wide
....................11 Stem leaves dense, of relatively equal length, strongly overlapping; [peninsular FL]
....................11 Stem leaves fewer, reduced upwards, only slightly overlapping; [collectively widespread in our area].
......................12 Phyllaries in unequal series, linear triangular (outer) to narrowly oblong-lanceolate (innermost), innermost series unevenly longer than the next outer series, inner to middle often glandular distally or only at the very apex, inner usually distinctly thinner; [widespread in our region, including in the inland provinces east of the Mississippi]
......................12 Phyllaries all similar, linear-triangular, evenly imbricate, glandular or eglandular, of even texture; [either Coastal Plain NC to n. FL west to se. LA, or west of the Mississippi River].
........................13 Involucres 8-11 mm high; peduncles and involucres eglandular; [AR, OK, TX, and LA, rarely east to sw. MS]
........................13 Involucres 4-7 mm high; involucres at least in part stipitate-glandular; [NC s to n. FL and w to se. LA].
..........................14 Inner phyllaries densely stipitate-glandular apically, sparsely to moderately sericeous proximally
..........................14 Inner phyllaries sometimes sparsely stipitate-glandular, usually sparsely to moderately sericeous throughout