Flora of the Southeastern United States
2022 Edition

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Key to Agrostis

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1 Palea 1/2-3/4 as long as the lemma, 0.6-1.2 mm long; plants introduced, often (though not always) in disturbed habitats; plants flowering Jun-Oct; [subgenus Agrostis].
..2 Ligule mostly 0.5-2 mm long, truncate; panicle branches naked toward the base, diffuse when in fruit, the spikelets well-separated
..2 Ligule mostly 2.5-6 mm long, acute, rounded, or truncate; panicle branches (some of them) with spikelets to near the base, the spikelets usually agglomerated.
....3 Leaves 3-8 mm wide; inflorescence triangular-ovoid, the branches widely spreading at maturity, usually reddish; plant with rhizomes, without stolons
....3 Leaves mostly 1-3 mm wide; inflorescence narrowly ovoid, the branches ascending at maturity, usually tan; plant without rhizomes, with or without stolons
1 Palea < 2/5 as long as the lemma, 0-0.5 mm long; plants native, typically in more or less natural habitats; plants flowering Mar-Nov; [subgenus Vilfa].
......4 Lemma usually awned (sometimes unawned), the awn inserted near the tip, 4-10 mm long, straight, very delicate and flexuous; annual, flowering Apr-Jun
......4 Lemma awned or not, the awn (when present) inserted either near the middle of the lemma or near the apex, 0-6 mm long, straight or bent, neither delicate nor flexuous; perennial, flowering Mar-Nov.
........5 Lemma with a (2-) 3-5 mm long, geniculate awn.
..........6 Anthers 1.0-1.5 mm long; spikelets 1.7-3.0 mm long; plant loosely cespitose, with stolons to 25 cm long
..........6 Anthers 0.5-0.8 mm long; spikelets 2.0-4.o mm long; plant densely cespitose
........5 Lemma awnless or with a 0-3 mm long awn, this often straight (rarely geniculate in A. scabra).
............7 Spikelets 1.2-2 mm long; anthers 0.3-0.6 mm long; lemma never awned; plants flowering Mar-Jul
............7 Spikelets 1.8-3.5 (-3.7) mm long; anthers 0.3-1.5 mm long; lemma awnless or awned; plants flowering Jun-Nov.
..............8 Leaves (at least the basal) mostly involute, 1-2 (-3) mm wide; panicle branches mostly forking well beyond the middle; anthers 0.4-0.8 mm long
..............8 Leaves flat, 2-6 mm wide; panicle branches mostly forking at or below the middle; anthers 0.3-1.2 mm long.
................9 Lemma 1.8-3 mm long, minutely but copiously scabrous (at 20× or more); anthers 0.7-1.2 mm long; spikelets (2.3-) 2.7-3.5 (-3.7) mm long, usually clustered near the tips of the branchlets; panicle branches scabrous; culms to 15 dm tall; [of wet savannas and other wet habitats of the Coastal Plain]
................9 Lemma 1.4-2 mm long, glabrous; anthers 0.3-0.6 mm long; spikelets (1.8-) 2.2-2.7 (-3.2) mm long, usually not clustered near the tips of the branchlets; panicle branches glabrous to scabrous; culms to 10 dm tall; [of various habitats, nearly throughout our area]