Flora of the Southeastern United States
2022 Edition

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Key G3: lianas with alternate, simple, and unlobed leaves

1 Leaves serrate.
..2 Leaf venation palmate, the leaf often lobed or at least pentagonal in shape (as well as serrate); plants climbing by leaf-opposed tendrils
..2 Leaf venation pinnate, the leaf neither lobed nor pentagonal; plants climbing by other mechanisms (see below).
....3 Plants climbing by axillary tendrils; [FL]
....3 Plants climbing by adventitious roots, by twining, or by growing through bark layers of Taxodium ascendens or Chamaecyparis thyoides; [collectively widespread in our region].
......4 Plants climbing by adventitious roots; leaf base cordate or subcordate, and also slightly to strongly oblique
......4 Plants climbing by twining, or by growing through bark layers of Taxodium ascendens or Chamaecyparis thyoides; leaf base cuneate, rounded, or cordate.
........5 Leaves strongly cordate at the base, 7-15 cm wide
........5 Leaves cuneate, rounded, or subcordate at the base, 0.3-8 cm wide.
..........6 Leaf blades mostly 2-6 cm long, 0.3-2 cm wide; plants climbing by growing through bark layers of Taxodium ascendens or Chamaecyparis thyoides
..........6 Leaf blades mostly 6-13 cm long, 3-8 cm wide; plants climbing by twining
1 Leaves entire.
............ 7 Stems with well-developed prickles; tendrils paired, stipular (diverging from the leaf petiole above its base); [Monocots]
............ 7 Stems lacking prickles; tendrils either absent or (if present) not stipular and paired; [Eudicots or Basal Angiosperms].
............ ..8 Plant climbing by dense, reddish adventitious roots
............ ..8 Plant climbing by twining or by tendrils.
............ ....9 Plant climbing by tendrils
............ ....9 Plant climbing by twining.
............ ......10 Leaves elliptic or ovate, obviously longer than broad, most leaves > 1.4× as long as wide; leaf blade base narrowly cuneate, broadly cuneate, rounded, or subcordate.
............ ........11 Leaves 3-8 cm long, rounded to broadly cuneate at the base and rounded or obtuse at the apex; lateral leaf veins straight, parallel, not forking; inflorescence a terminal thyrse or panicle
............ ........11 Leaves 6-15 cm long, cuneate at the base and acuminate at the apex; lateral leaf veins forking at or beyond the middle; inflorescence a solitary, axillary flower
............ ......10 Leaves orbicular to very widely ovate, most leaves < 1.4× as long as wide; leaf blade base deeply cordate, subcordate, rounded, or broadly cuneate
............ ..........12 Leaf venation pinnate, but “pseudopalmate”, with 3 primary veins from the marginal point of attachment of the petiole, the 2 lateral veins then promptly rebranching (< 1 cm from the leaf base) into 2-3 prominent veins (the remainder of the venation pinnate along the midvein); basalmost pair of primary veins exposed (lacking leaf tissue) on their basal side for > 2 mm; leaf blade base deeply cordate; leaf with no tendency to lobing, the leaf outline convex from the base to the apex (except in the immediate vicinity of the petiole and sometimes immediately near a slightly acuminate apex
............ ..........12 Leaf venation palmate, with (3-) 5-9 primary veins from the marginal or peltate point of attachment of the petiole, these primary veins then rebranching well above the leaf base; basalmost pair of primary veins completely included within leaf tissue; leaf blade base cordate, subcordate, rounded, or broadly cuneate; leaf with a tendency to lobing, the leaf outline with 1 or more concave areas between the base and the apex (except Cissampelos of s. FL)