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Key to Solidago, Key E: Key to "tall goldenrods" -- with 3-veined stem leaves dominant and secund paniculiform inflorescences [subgenus Pleiactila; section Unilaterales (in part)]

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1 Upper stem (above the midpoint, up to the branches of the inflorescence) glabrous.
..2 Plants to 20 dm tall; basal leaves never present; mid-stem leaves averaging 4-6× as long as wide; upper stem usually slightly to moderately glaucous as well as glabrous; [widespread]; [subgenus Pleiactilis, section Unilaterales, subsection Serotinae]
..2 Plants to 10 dm tall; basal leaves withering or not before flowering (if not, also keyed elsewhere), often with associated sterile offshoots with basal leaves; mid-stem leaves averaging 5-10× as long as wide; upper stem glabrous, green; [KY, TN, and MS westwards].
....3 Rootstock short and branched, not producing creeping rhizomes; ray flowers 5-8; receptacle lacking intercalated green bracts (resembling phyllaries) inward from the rays; mid and upper stem leaves usually lacking axillary fascicles of smaller leaves; [subgenus Pleiactilis, section Unilaterales, subsection Radulae]
....3 Rootstock producing creeping rhizomes; ray flowers 7-13; receptacle often with a few intercalated green bracts (resembling phyllaries) inward from the rays; mid and upper stem leaves usually with axillary fascicles of smaller leaves; [subgenus Pleiactilis, section Unilaterales, subsection Junceae]
1 Upper stem hairy (above the midpoint, up to the branches of the inflorescence), variously puberulent, strigillose to strigose, villous, or scabrous.
......4 Midstem leaf blades 1-4 (-5)× as long as wide, the base attenuated to a winged petiole (at least in leaves of the lower midstem(; plants 1-10 dm tall; [collectively in IL, MO, AR, and LA westwards, disjunct eastwards in KY, NC, SC, GA, and AL]
........5 Leaf margins coarsely serrate; midstem leaf blades mostly 1.3-2× as long as wide; leaf surfaces evenly short villous; [IL & MO south to AR]; [subgenus Pleiactilis, section Venosae, subsection Drummondiani]
........5 Leaf margins entire to finely serrate; midstem leaf blades mostly 2-4 (-5)× as long as wide; leaf surface vestiture appressed to scabrous; [subgenus Pleiactilis, section Unilaterales, subsection Radulae].
..........6 Leaf surfaces with appressed (strigillose) hairs; upper stem vestiture densely strigose, the stems appearing grayish-green; rhizomes long-creeping, the plants forming clonal patches; [OK and nc. TX westwards and northwestwards]
..........6 Leaf surfaces scabrous; upper stem vestiture scabrous to loosely puberulent, the stems appearing green or dingy green; rhizomes short (less commonly moderately creeping); [se. KS, OK, and TX eastwards]
......4 Midstem leaf blades 4-20× as long as wide, the base sessile and cuneate to rounded; plants 3-20 dm tall; [collectively widespread].
............ 7 Rays 2-8; midstem leaves 4-15 mm wide, mostly 6-20× as long as wide, either twisted at base or not.
............ ..8 Larger mid-stem leaves lanceolate to narrowly elliptic, 7-10 cm long, 10-15 mm wide; leaves not twisted; [KY and s. IN]; [subgenus Pleiactilis, section Unilaterales, subsection Canadensae]
............ ..8 Larger mid-stem leaves linear to lance-linear, 2-9 cm wide, 2-7 (-10) mm wide; leaves either twisted at base or not; [either OK and westwards, or Coastal Plain from VA to FL west to TX and AR].
............ ....9 Leaves 4-9 cm long, 4-5 mm wide; [inland provinces, OK and westwards]; [subgenus Pleiactilis, section Unilaterales, subsection Radulae]
............ ....9 Leaves 2-7 cm long, 2-7 (-10) mm wide; [Coastal Plain, VA to FL west to TX and AR]; [subgenus Pleiactilis, section Unilaterales, subsection Tortifoliae]
............ 7 Rays 4-17 (-24); midstem leaves 5-30 mm wide, 4-12× as long as wide, not twisted at base.
............ ......10 Midstem leaves mostly 8-12× as long as wide.
............ ........11 Rays 10-15; [wet pine savanna and marsh habitats, Coastal Plain of NC, SC, GA, FL, AL, and MS]; [subgenus Pleiactilis, section Unilaterales, subsection Tortifoliae]
............ ........11 Rays 7-11; [riverscour habitats, inland provinces of PA, MD, DC, VA, WV, IN, KY, TN]; [subgenus Pleiactilis, section Unilaterales, subsection Canadensae]
............ ......10 Midstem leaves mostly 4-6× as long as wide; [subgenus Pleiactilis, section Unilaterales, subsection Canadensae].
............ ..........12 Mid-stem leaves serrate, the teeth 3-8 (-10) per side, the largest > 1.5 mm long; involucres 1.7-2.5 (-3.0) mm high.
............ ..........12 Mid-stem leaves entire to serrulate, the teeth usually 0-6 per side (up to 14); involucres (2.5-) 3-4.5 mm high.
............ ............ ..14 Stem densely and closely villous-tomentose; leaves densely and evenly short pilose above and beneath; [western]
............ ............ ..14 Stem short pilose to puberulent; leaves usually noticeably less hairy above than beneath and often darker colored above, with ascending-appressed hairs on the upper surfaces; [collectively widespread].
............ ............ ....15 Upper surface of the leaves moderately to densely pubescent with short, curved to spreading hairs; [western]
............ ............ ....15 Upper surface of the leaves sparsely to moderately roughened with minute bulbous-based hairs (stouter and shorter than the hairs on the lower surface), or glabrous except along the veins; [collectively widespread].
............ ............ ......16 Inflorescence broad; upper stem leaves not reduced in size relative to the mid-stem leaves; [broadly eastern]
............ ............ ......16 Inflorescence elongated, narrow; upper stem leaves reduced; [southern]
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