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Key to Lamiaceae

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1 Fruit a fleshy drupe; plant a small tree, shrub, or sprawling vine; mature stems terete or obscurely 4-sided (by secondary growth).
..2 Flowers zygomorphic; leaves simple or palmately (3-) 5-7 (-9) foliolate; [subfamily Viticoideae]
..2 Flowers essentially actinomorphic; leaves simple.
....3 Stems pubescent with dendritic hairs; inflorescence axillary; calyx 0.5-2 mm, lobes diminutive to nearly obsolete; [genus incertae sedis]
....3 Stems glabrous or pubescent with simple hairs; inflorescence terminal (rarely only axillary); calyx 5-18 mm, lobes conspicuous; [subfamily Ajugoideae]
1 Fruit a schizocarp of 4 dry mericarps; plant either an herb or a shrub to 5 (-20) dm tall; mature stems usually distinctly 4-sided (sometimes terete or obscurely 4-sided).
......4 Calyx with either a distinctly enlarged protuberance on the upper surface, or the upper lobe expanded and “cap-like”.
........5 Calyx with 5 lobes, clearly separate apically, with the upper lobe expanded and “cap-like”
........5 Calyx with 2 entire lobes joined at the margins, rounded apically, with a distinct protuberance on the upper surface
......4 Calyx without an enlarged protuberance or “cap-like” upper lobe.
..........6 Upper lip of corolla greatly reduced or lobes laterally disposed, thus the corolla appearing to consist of one large lower lip; [subfamily Ajugoideae].
............ 7 Lower lip with 2-4 lobes; flowers yellow or deep blue-purple; plants stoloniferous
............ 7 Lower lip appearing 5-lobed (proximal 2 lateral, erect lobes represent the cryptic upper lip); flowers white to pink; plants cespitose
..........6 Upper lip of corolla conspicuous, flaring or galeate.
............ ..8 Plants distinctly repent and rooting at the nodes, or producing elongate stolons.
............ ......10 Herbs; leaves cordate-reniform, coarsely crenate, the blade > 1 cm long; inflorescence of axillary cymules; corollas 10-20 mm
............ ......10 Subshrubs; leaves ovate to elliptic, entire, the blade < 1 cm long; inflorescence a terminal thyrse; corollas 4-5 mm
............ ........11 Inflorescence in dense axillary verticils; calyx and corolla actinomorphic, calyx 4-5-lobed, flowers 3-4 mm long
............ ..8 Plants not distinctly repent or stoloniferous.
............ ..........12 Calyx with 6-10 lobes or teeth.
............ ..........12 Calyx with 5 or fewer lobes or teeth.
............ ............ ..14 Calyx with 3-4 prominent lobes (rarely 5, if one includes small teeth).
............ ............ ......16 Calyx with 4 unequal primary lobes; flowers large, 2.5-3.5 cm long, in bracteate terminal racemes
............ ............ ......16 Calyx with 3 primary lobes (upper lobe occasionally with 3 apiculate teeth, e.g. Salvia lyrata); flowers 3 cm or less, in terminal thyrses.
............ ............ ........17 Stamens 4; calyx enveloped and partially concealed by subtending bracts
............ ............ ........17 Stamens 2; calyx not enveloped by subtending bracts.
............ ............ ..........18 Herbs; calyx with simple trichomes; leaves non-revolute, margins various, membranaceous
............ ............ ..14 Calyx usually with 5 prominent lobes (except for Clinopodium with rarely fused upper lobes).
............ ............ ............ ....21 Corolla actinomorphic, lobes spreading and nearly equal (one lobe slightly emarginate and/or enlarged).
............ ............ ............ ......22 Inflorescences axillary; foliage not or faintly aromatic
............ ............ ............ ......22 Inflorescences terminal; foliage strongly aromatic
............ ............ ............ ..........24 Corolla 7-20 mm; inflorescence a densely clustered terminal or axillary cyme, or a well developed panicle.
............ ............ ............ ............ 25 Inflorescence a dense cluster of one or more terminal cymules (occasionally just axillary); lower lip of corolla not fringed
............ ............ ............ ............ ..26 Corolla 3.5-4 mm, borne 2 per node in a slender terminal spike; middle lobe of upper calyx reduced
............ ............ ............ ............ ..26 Corolla 4-10 mm, borne in axillary cymes or spike-like panicle; upper calyx lobes similar.
............ ............ ............ ............ ....27 Flowers in loose axillary cymes; calyx gibbous, throat closed by hairs; corollas ca. 4-5 mm long
............ ............ ............ ............ ....27 Flowers in a spike-like panicle; calyx not gibbous or closed by hairs; corollas ca. 10 mm long
............ ............ ............ ............ ......28 Stamens ascending under the upper corolla lip, either included within the tube (or at least not clearly exserted beyond it).
............ ............ ............ ............ ..........30 Flowers borne in terminal verticils or thyrses, with reduced bracteal leaves.
............ ............ ............ ............ ..........30 Flowers borne in axils of well-developed leaves, or a terminal raceme with 1 flower per node.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....33 Stems often with swollen nodes (areas just below appear dark and sunken upon drying, except G. ladanum); hairs of the stem either exclusively hispid or short recurved and mixed with longer glandular trichomes; corolla 15-28 mm long
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....33 Stems without swollen nodes; hairs of the stem finely and softly retrorse, generally lacking glandular hairs (though sessile glands may be present); corolla 5-14 mm long.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........35 Flowers borne in axils of well developed leaves, corolla tube not broadly inflated.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........36 Verticils 6-12-flowered, compact; corollas 10-30 mm.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..38 Shrubs, diffusely branched; [restricted to se. Coastal Plain and Cumberland Plateau]
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..38 Herbs, branched or unbranched; [collectively widespread].
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....39 Calyx teeth distinctly white or pink, noticeably different from the tube
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 43 Upper lobes differing in sinus depth and/or size from the lower lobes; flowers borne variously.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 49 Flowers in dense terminal capitate clusters, subtended by large bracteal leaves (these often whitened on the upper surface and especially towards the base)
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........54 Large plants, well over 30 cm tall; leaves often petiolate, broadly ovate or lanceolate, margins not revolute or entire; [collectively widespread].

Key N2: herbaceous dicots with mainly basal, simple leaves

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1 Inflorescence an involucrate head subtended by phyllaries, the heads solitary or many and variously arrayed in secondary inflorescences, the ovary inferior, the corolla connate and tubular at least basally, the calyx absent, the stamens 5, the fruit a cypsela
1 Inflorescence, flower, and fruit structure various, but not with the combination of features as above (sometimes the flowers in a head subtended by bracts, e.g. Eryngium in APIACEAE, but then with other features differing, such as stamens 4, or green calyx present, or petals separate, or fruit a schizocarp of mericarps, etc.).
..2 Basal leaves 2-lobed, pinnately lobed, or palmately lobed (not considering cordate, hastate, or auriculate leaf bases as “lobed”).
....3 Basal leaves 2-lobed, hinged between the lobes, each lobe with stiff, marginal, eyelash-like bristles; [Coastal Plain of NC and SC, rarely planted and weakly naturalized elsewhere]
....3 Basal leaves 3-many-lobed, palmately or pinnately; [collectively widespread].
......4 Leaf lobing pinnate.
........5 Gynoecium of separate pistils (each with a single carpel); fruit an aggregate
........5 Gynoecium of a single pistil (with 2, rarely more, carpels); fruit simple.
..........6 Stamens many; sepals 2, petals 4; fresh plants with yellow, orange, or white milky juice
..........6 Stamens 4, 5, or 6; sepals 4 or 5; petals 4 or 5.
............ 7 Petals 4, distinct; stamens 6
............ 7 Petals 5, fused; stamens 2, 4, or 5.
............ ..8 Corolla radially symmetrical; stamens 5
............ ..8 Corolla 2-lipped, bilaterally symmetrical or asymmetrical; stamens 2 or 4.
............ ....9 Corolla lobes not twisted, the flower bilaterally symmetrical; stamens 2
............ ....9 Corolla lobes twisted so as to make the flower asymmetrical; stamens 4
......4 Leaf lobing palmate.
............ ........11 Leaves < 10 cm in diameter
............ ........11 Leaves > 15 cm in diameter
............ ............ 13 Petals 4; stamens 8; fruit a capsule
............ ............ 13 Petals 5; stamens 5; fruit a schizocarp of 2 mericarps.
............ ............ ..14 Fruit smooth; leaves with 5 or more lobes
............ ..........12 Ovary superior, or half-inferior by fusion of a hypanthium a part of the way up the ovary wall.
............ ............ ....15 Gynoecium of separate pistils (each with a single carpel); fruit an aggregate.
............ ............ ......16 Perianth of 5 green sepals and 5 colored petals.
............ ............ ........17 Carpels partly fused, arrayed in a ring of 10-20
............ ............ ......16 Perianth of a single whorl of 3-12 petaloid sepals (the petals absent or small and rudimentary).
............ ............ ..........18 Leaves 2, the single flower terminal and associated with the upper leaf; fruit an aggregate of berries
............ ............ ..........18 Leaves normally > 2, flowers not as above; fruit an aggregate of achenes, utricles, or follicles
............ ............ ....15 Gynoecium of a single pistil (with 1-5 carpels); fruit simple.
............ ............ ............ 19 Hypanthium present, partially fused or not fused to the pistil; ovary partially inferior to superior
............ ............ ............ ..20 Petals distinct; leaves with rounded lobes or teeth.
............ ............ ............ ....21 Corolla radially symmetrical; petals 8-12; capsule fusiform, narrowed to both ends, > 5× as long as wide
............ ............ ............ ....21 Corolla bilaterally symmetrical; petals 5; capsule ovoid, < 2× as long as wide
..2 Basal leaves not lobed, at most serrate or crenate (and sometimes also cordate, hastate, auriculate, or peltate at the base).
............ ............ ............ ..........24 Inflorescence a terminal and/or axillary raceme, panicle, or cyme of many small flowers; fruit an achene; perianth uniseriate, of 0, 4-5, or 6 tepals.
............ ............ ............ ..........24 Inflorescence either a terminal spike, or a 1-7-flowered terminal cyme, or of a solitary axillary or terminal flower; fruit various; perianth biseriate (of differentiated sepals and petals (except uniseriate, of 3 fused sepals in ARISTOLOCHIACEAE).
............ ............ ............ ............ ..26 Flowers bilaterally symmetrical; inflorescence a terminal spike (with > 20 flowers); petals 4, usually scarious, transparent; sepals 4, green; stamens 4
............ ............ ............ ............ ..26 Flowers radially symmetrical; inflorescence either of a solitary flower or of a 1-7-flowered terminal cyme; petals 5, 8-12, or 0; sepals 5 (green), 3 (brown), or 5-9 (yellow); stamens 5, 12, or many.
............ ............ ............ ............ ....27 Gynoecium of separate pistils (each with a single carpel); fruit an aggregate of achenes or follicles; flowers bright yellow, either of 5-9 distinct petaloid sepals, or of 8-12 distinct petals subtended by 3-4 green distinct sepals
............ ............ ............ ............ ....27 Gynoecium either of a single pistil with 6 carpels or of a single pistil with 4 carpels or of 2 nearly separate carpels; fruit a simple capsule (or deeply 2-lobed); flowers white, brown, or greenish, either of 5 fused or distinct white petals and 5 fused or distinct green sepals, or of 3 fused brown or greenish petaloid sepals.
............ ............ ............ ............ ......28 Flowers brown or green, of 3 fused brown or greenish petaloid sepals (and 0 petals); carpels 6; stamens 12; leaves 4-10 cm wide
............ ............ ............ ............ ......28 Flowers white, of 5 white or whitish petals and 5 green sepals; carpels 2; stamens 5; leaves 1-12 (-15) cm wide
............ ............ ............ ............ ........29 Petals fused; sepals fused; carpels 2; plant pubescent.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 31 Gynoecium of separate pistils (each with a single carpel); fruit an aggregate; perianth of 5 green sepals and 5 colored petals.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..32 Carpels 10-20, partly fused, arrayed in a ring; petals white, pink, red, or purplish
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..32 Carpels many, separate, spiral; petals yellow or white.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....33 Flowers lacking a hypanthium; fruit an aggregate of achenes or aggregate of follicles
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....33 Flowers with a hypanthium; fruit an aggregate of drupelets or aggregate of achenes
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......34 Flowers bilaterally symmetrical; inflorescence of a solitary flower; fruit a 3-locular capsule
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........36 Inflorescence a terminal raceme; perianth of 4 green sepals and 4 white petals; fruit a silique/silicle; fresh foliage in spring and summer with a strong garlic odor; larger leaves < 10 cm in diameter
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........36 Inflorescence a terminal panicle; perianth of 6 cream-colored petaloid sepals; fruit a winged achene; fresh foliage lacking a garlic odor; larger leaves typically > 30 cm in diameter
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..38 Leaf blades longer than wide, sharply V-cleft at the base and otherwise shallowly denticulate
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..38 Leaf blades as broad or broader than long, cleft at the base and also irregularly serrate or crenate around the margin
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....39 Leaves tubular, with a sutured ventral flange, erect or reclining, adapted as a pitfall for insects (flat, phyllodial leaves sometimes present as well, common in the winter in some species, such as S. oreophila)
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......40 Stem leaves opposite; perianth 5-merous, at least the corolla bilaterally symmetrical (barely so in VALERIANACEAE), or the parts curved so as to be asymmetrical (Pedicularis in OROBANCHACEAE); stamens 2, 3, or 4.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........42 Corolla narrowly tubular, the five lobes flaring at nearly 90 degrees and nearly radially symmetrical
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........42 Corolla distinctly 2-lipped (with prominently large upper and lower corolla lobes) or hooded (the upper lip hood-like), distinctly bilaterally symmetrical, or the lobes twisted so as to make the corolla asymmetrical.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 43 Corolla yellow, the upper lip often slightly to strongly maroon, hooded but the corolla lobes twisted so as to make the flower asymmetrical
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......40 Stem leaves alternate; perianth radially symmetrical (less commonly bilaterally symmetrical); stamens 5, 6-8, 9, 10 (rarely 4).
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 49 Corolla bilaterally symmetrical (barely so in Limosella in SCROPHULARIACEAE); stamens 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..56 Perianth of green sepals and more brightly colored petals; stamens 5 or 10; carpels 2, 3, 4, or 5.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......64 Inflorescence a somewhat to very diffuse panicle, with 3 or more orders of branching, not giving at all the impression that the overall inflorescence is made of racemose units.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........65 Leaves serrate or crenate; stamens 10; [plants of various habitats, especially rock outcrops and bottomland forests and streambanks, never in tidal marshes]
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......64 Inflorescence either a single terminal raceme (sometimes spike-like), or of 1 to several terminal and axillary racemes (these sometimes combined into a diffuse panicle, but one whose structure is clearly made up of many racemes).
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