Flora of the Southeastern United States
2022 Edition

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Keyed in multiple places:

Key to Primulaceae

1 Shrub or tree; [of FL, s. GA, s. AL, LA, se. TX, and southward]
..2 Fruit a berry, with (1-) 2-8 seeds; fruits 9-10 mm or 30-40 mm in diameter; [subfamily Theophrastoideae]
....3 Fruits 30-40 mm in diameter; seeds 9-11 mm long, flattened; leaves 2.5-4× as long as wide, widest near the midpoint, the apex acute to acuminate and also aristate; corollas yellow to orange or red
....3 Fruits 9-10 mm in diameter; seeds 3-5 mm long, subglobose; leaves 1.5-3× as long as wide, widest towards the tip, spatulate or obovate, the apex rounded, truncate, or obtuse; corollas white to cream
..2 Fruit a drupe, with 1 seed; fruits 3.5-8 mm in diameter; [subfamily Myrsinoideae].
......4 Flowers in axillary or terminal cymes, umbels, subumbels, panicles, or racemes of 5-many flowers; flowers bisexual
......4 Flowers in fascicles of 5-9, on short stalks directly on the stem; flowers unisexual
1 Herb; [collectively widespread].
........5 Aquatic; leaves pectinate (deeply pinnatifid into linear segments); [subfamily Primuloideae]
........5 Terrestrial (though sometimes in wetlands or submersed for short periods of time); leaves entire or shallowly toothed.
..........6 Leaves strictly in a basal rosette or basally disposed (with a basal rosette and smaller stem leaves).
............ 7 Basal leaves petiolate; leaf base cordate; leaves typically variegated with varying shades of green and silver
............ 7 Basal leaves sessile; leaf bases cuneate to rounded; leaves not variegated.
............ ..8 Inflorescence a raceme or a panicle of racemes; larger leaves basal and smaller leaves on the stem; [subfamily Theophrastidoideae, tribe Samoleae]
............ ..8 Inflorescence an umbel; leaves strictly basal; [subfamily Primuloideae]
............ ....9 Leaves < 3 cm long; corolla < 6 mm long, included or nearly so in the calyx; [s. IN, s. IL, MO, n. and w. AR, and TX northwestwards]
............ ....9 Leaves > 4 cm long; corolla 8-30 mm long, exserted beyond the calyx; [collectively widespread in our area]
..........6 Leaves all or chiefly cauline; [subfamily Myrsinoideae]
............ ......10 Leaves all or chiefly alternate; flowers white or whitish.
............ ........11 Flowers solitary and nearly sessile in leaf axils
............ ........11 Flowers in a terminal raceme
............ ......10 Leaves all or chiefly opposite or whorled; flowers yellow, blue, red, or whitish.
............ ..........12 Leaves whorled at a single node at the terminus of the stem; petals 7
............ ..........12 Leaves arrayed along the stem, alternate, opposite, or whorled; petals 5 (rarely 0 [in Lysimachia maritima] or 6 [in Lysimachia thyrsiflora])
............ ............ 13 Flowers blue or red
............ ............ 13 Flowers yellow.
............ ............ ..14 Flowers lacking staminodes; filaments either connate below or free (Lysimachia thyrsiflora); leaves “punctate” with sinuous, elongate markings (visible with the naked eye, but more readily observed with 10 × magnification and ideally with transmitted light).
............ ............ ..14 Flowers with staminodes alternating with the stamens; filaments free; leaves not "punctate" (see above).

Key P1: herbaceous dicots with alternate, simple, and unlobed leaves on the stem

1 Inflorescence an involucrate head subtended by phyllaries, the heads solitary or many and variously arrayed in secondary inflorescences, the ovary inferior, the corolla connate and tubular at least basally, the calyx absent, the stamens 5, the fruit a cypsela
1 Inflorescence, flower, and fruit structure various, but not with the combination of features as above (sometimes the flowers in a head, e.g. Eryngium in APIACEAE, but then with other features differing, such as stamens 4, or green calyx present, or fruit a schizocarp of mericarps, etc.).
..2 Perianth uniseriate (represented only by undifferentiated tepals or sepals) or completely absent; flowers usually unisexual, less commonly bisexual).
....3 Inflorescence a cyathium, consisting of a single pistillate flower (reduced to a single 3-carpellate pistil) and 2 or more staminate flowers (each reduced to 1 stamen), borne in a cup-like involucre, the involucre bearing pointed or rounded glands, these sometimes brightly colored and petaloid, mimicking an individual flower (the cyathia then secondarily arranged in terminal cymes, or solitary and axillary, etc.); fresh plants with milky juice; fruit a 3-lobed, 3-locular capsule
....3 Inflorescence not a cyathium (and staminate or bisexual flowers with > 1 stamen; fresh plants lacking milky juice (except Stillingia in EUPHORBIACEAE); fruit various, not as above.
......4 Leaf margins toothed in some manner (serrate, dentate, crenate, etc.)
........5 Leaf teeth rounded to subacute, resembling shallow lobes, irregular, few (mostly < 6 per leaf side).
..........6 Fruit a single-seeded achene or utricle; [plants of various disturbed or saline, usually sunny habitats]
..........6 Fruit a 3-lobed, circumscissilely dehiscent capsule; [plants native of rich moist shaded forests or aliens in suburban woodlands]
........5 Leaf teeth sharp to crenate, not lobe-like, regular, many (mostly > 10 per leaf side).
............ 7 Leaf bases cuneate
............ 7 Leaf bases cordate to rounded.
............ ..8 Styles 3; fruit a 3-lobed, 3-carpellate capsule (1 carpel sometimes aborting); inflorescence either a terminal or leaf opposed raceme, or a dense axillary condensed cyme with conspicuous toothed bracts subtending the flowers
............ ..8 Styles 1 or 2; fruit either an achene or a multiple of achenes; inflorescence either an axillary dense cyme (almost a head), or an axillary spike with glomerules, or a terminal or axillary panicle.
............ ....9 Styles 2; inflorescence a dense axillary cyme (almost a head); fruit a multiple of achenes; plant lacking stinging hairs; [alien plant of weedy situations]
............ ....9 Style 1; inflorescence an axillary spikes with glomerules, or a terminal or axillary panicle; plant either with stinging hairs or not; [plant a rare alien (Boehmeria nivea) or a native of moist forests (Boehmeria cylindrica, Laportea)]
......4 Leaf margins entire.
............ ......10 Ovary inferior or half-inferior.
............ ........11 Leaf base cordate; calyx 3-lobed, fused into a bilaterally symmetrical, curved brown or yellowish tube; fruit a capsule
............ ........11 Leaf base cuneate, rounded, or truncate; calyx of 3-4-5 distinct sepals, radially symmetrical, white or yellow; fruit a dry, nutlike drupe or an achene.
............ ..........12 Leaves subsessile or very short petiolate, elliptic or narrowly elliptic, broadest near the middle; [native]
............ ..........12 Leaves distinctly petiolate, rhombic, widest near the base; [rarely naturalized aliens].
............ ............ 13 Inflorescence of a single axillary flower
............ ............ 13 Inflorescence terminal, spikelike
............ ......10 Ovary superior.
............ ............ ..14 Inflorescence a leaf-opposed (sometimes apparently terminal) spike or raceme; flowers visually white from white petaloid sepals, white bracts, or white stamens.
............ ............ ....15 Sepals present, 4 or 5; petaloid, white; carpels 1 to many (-12); stamens 4 to many (-25); fruit a berry or an apically 2-lobed achene (as in Petiveria); leaf bases cuneate or rounded (but not cordate); [Eudicots].
............ ............ ......16 Sepals 4; carpels 1; fruit subglobose berries or apically lobed achenes
............ ............ ......16 Sepals 5; carpels 6-12, distinct; fruit an oblate berry
............ ............ ....15 Sepals absent; carpels 3-4; stamens 2-6 (-8); fruit a capsule, a 1-seeded drupe, or a schizocarp of 3-4 mericarps; leaf bases cordate or subcordate; [Basal Angiosperms].
............ ............ ........17 Fruit a 1-seeded drupe; stamens 2; plants terrestrial or epiphytic
............ ............ ........17 Fruit a capsule or schizocarp with 3-4 mericarps; stamens 3 or 6-8; plants terrestrial
............ ............ ..14 Inflorescence not leaf-opposed, either simpler (single axillary or glomerules of flowers) or more complexly branched (axillary or terminal panicles or complex cymes); flowers white, reddish, scarious, or greenish.
............ ............ ..........18 Stipules tubular, sheathing (= ocreae); flowers subtended by tubular, sheathing bracteoles (= ocreolae); nodes usually prominently swollen; perianth usually of 5-6 white to pink tepals
............ ............ ..........18 Stipules not tubular or sheathing; flowers not subtended by ocreolae; nodes not swollen; perianth absent or of 3-5 sepals.
............ ............ ............ 19 Inflorescence an terminal involucrate cluster; flowers bisexual; stamens 9
............ ............ ............ 19 Inflorescence axillary, or a terminal panicle or raceme that is not involucrate; stamens 3-6.
............ ............ ............ ..20 Ovary 3-locular; styles 3, each bifid; fruit a capsule, with 6 seeds
............ ............ ............ ..20 Ovary 1-locular; styles 1-3, not bifid; fruit a utricle or achene (1-seeded).
............ ............ ............ ....21 Styles 1, stigma 1; flowers unisexual
............ ............ ............ ....21 Styles 1-3, if style 1, then stigmas 3; flowers bisexual or unisexual.
............ ............ ............ ......22 Tepals acute, scarious
............ ............ ............ ......22 Tepals usually blunt, herbaceous
..2 Perianth biseriate (represented by differentiated whorls of sepals and petals, the sepals usually green or drab in color, the petals often brightly colored); flowers nearly always bisexual (there are exceptions).
............ ............ ............ ........23 Ovary inferior or half-inferior.
............ ............ ............ ..........24 Petals connate.
............ ............ ............ ............ 25 Inflorescence leaf-opposed, a dense, cylindrical spike
............ ............ ............ ............ 25 Inflorescence various, either a terminal head, or axillary and solitary, or variously axillary or terminal and more diffuse.
............ ............ ............ ............ ..26 Leaves toothed; flowers blue to white
............ ............ ............ ............ ..26 Leaves entire; flowers white
............ ............ ............ ..........24 Petals distinct.
............ ............ ............ ............ ....27 Petals 5; stamens 5; inflorescence a head; fruit a schizocarp of 2 mericarps
............ ............ ............ ............ ....27 Petals 4 7; stamens 6 or more; inflorescence various, not a head; fruit a capsule.
............ ............ ............ ............ ......28 Petals 4-7; stamens 1× or 2× as many as the petals, 4-7, 8, 10, 12, or14; leaves herbaceous in texture
............ ............ ............ ............ ......28 Petals 5 (or sometimes doubled in horticultural forms); stamens 6-40 (or more); leaves fleshy in texture
............ ............ ............ ........23 Ovary superior.
............ ............ ............ ............ ........29 Corolla bilaterally symmetrical, petals connate (except distinct in VIOLACEAE); fruit a capsule or legume (except a 1-seeded indehiscent pod in Krameria in KRAMERIACEAE).
............ ............ ............ ............ ..........30 Petals distinct, 5; carpels 3; fruit a 3-loculed capsule
............ ............ ............ ............ ..........30 Petals connate (at least basally), 4, 5, 6, 7, or 8; carpels 1, 2, 4, 5, or 6 (rarely 3 in Reseda in RESEDACEAE); fruit a legume or 1-, 2-, or 5-loculed capsule (except a 1-seeded indehiscent pod in Krameria in KRAMERIACEAE).
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 31 Stamens 6-10 (-25), more than the number (4 or 5) of petals and the number (4 or 5) of the sepals; fruit a legume or a 1-6-carpellate capsule.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..32 Stamens fused, monadelphous or diadelphous.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....33 Stamens 10, monadelphous or diadelphous; fruit a legume
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....33 Stamens 6-8, monadelphous; fruit a capsule
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..32 Stamens distinct.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......34 Carpel 1; fruit a legume
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......34 Carpels 3-6; fruit a capsule
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 31 Stamens 4-5, less than the number (5) of the petals; fruit a 2-5-carpellate capsule.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........35 Pistil 5-carpellate; capsule 5-locular, explosively dehiscent; inflorescence axillary, small clusters of flowers
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........35 Pistil 2-carpellate; capsule 2 locular, opening gradually or not at all; inflorescence a terminal spike, raceme or panicle (or solitary, axillary flowers in Chaenorrhinum in PLANTAGINACEAE and Krameria in KRAMERIACEAE).
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........36 Fruit 1-seeded, indehiscent; sepals petaloid, red-purple; petals dimorphic, the upper 3 long-clawed, the lower 2 small, thickened, and glandlike
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........36 Fruit > 2-seeded, dehiscent; sepals sepaloid, green; petals not dimorphic.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 37 Stamens 5; corolla not spurred; capsule septicidal; pubescence of the stem and leaves either gland-tipped or dendritically branched
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 37 Stamens 4; corolla with a distinct spur or sac at the base between the the 2 lower calyx lobes (except not spurred in Digitalis and Schwalbea); capsule loculicidal (only at the summit in Antirrhinum and Chaenorrhinum, and septicidal in Schwalbea); pubescence of the stem and leaves neither gland-tipped (except in Antirrhinum and Chaenorrhinum) nor dendritically branched.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..38 Capsule septicidal; corolla not spurred
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..38 Capsule loculicidal; corolla spurred (except Digitalis)
............ ............ ............ ............ ........29 Corolla radially symmetrical, petals connate or distinct; fruit various (including a capsule).
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....39 Petals distinct; stamens 5-many.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......40 Pistils 4-10 (each 1-carpellate) in a ring, these sometimes fused basally, each with its own style/stigma; fruit either an aggregate of achenes or follicles or a 5 (-7) locular capsule.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........41 Pistils 5 (-7); inflorescence a compound terminal cyme.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........42 Fruit an aggregate of follicles; leaves fleshy in texture; inflorescence; leaves entire of sparesly and coarsely serrate, with < 12 points per leaf; [plants primarily of dry habitats]
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........42 Fruit a 5 (-7) locular capsule; leaves membranaceous in texture; leaves serrate, with > 20 points per leaf; [plants of wet habitats]
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........41 Pistils many; inflorescence of solitary flowers, or diffuse.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 43 Leaves cuneate at the base; flowers in a diffuse inflorescence
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 43 Leaves cordate at the base; flowers solitary, on long pedicels
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......40 Pistil 1, with 1-to many carpels (in many MALVACEAE, the carpels loosely united in a ring [of more than 5] around the single style/stigma); fruit either a 1-, 2-, 3-, 5-, 6-, or 10-locular capsule, or a silique/silicle, or a ring of mericarps.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..44 Petals 4; sepals 4; stamens 6; fruit a silique/silicle
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..44 Petals 5 (rarely 4 or 6); sepals 5 (rarely 4 or 6); stamens 5 (or multiples of 5), 6, or 12; fruit a capsule or a ring of mericarps.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....45 Stamens many, connate into a staminal tube; carpels 5-many; fruit a capsule or ring of mericarps; leaves usually serrate
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....45 Stamens 5-many, distinct; carpels 2-5; fruit a capsule; leaves entire (serrate in Croton in EUPHORBIACEAE).
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......46 Flowers unisexual; leaf vestiture of peltate scales and/or stellate hairs
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......46 Flowers bisexual; leaf vestiture simple or stellate.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........47 Flowers 6-merous (the petals and sepals 6, the stamens 6 or 12); corolla pink or purplish (rarely white); fruit a septicidal capsule
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........47 Flowers 5-merous (the petals and sepals 5, stamens 5 or various multiples of 5); corolla yellow, reddish, or blue; fruit a loculicidal or septicidal capsule.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........48 Stamens 5; corolla yellow or blue; capsule either 10-locular and septicidal or 1-locular (with 3 carpels) and loculicidal.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 49 Capsule 10-locular (with 5 carpels) and septicidal
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 49 Capsule 1-locular (with 3 carpels) and loculicidal
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........48 Stamens (5-) 10, 15, 20, 30 (-many); corolla white, pink, yellow, or reddish; capsule 3-, 5- (-10)-locular, loculicidal.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..50 Stamens (5-) 10, 15, 20, 30 (-many); corolla yellow or reddish; capsule 3 (-10)-locular, loculicidal
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..50 Stamens 10; corolla white or pink; capsule 5-locular
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....39 Petals fused; stamens (4-) 5 (-7).
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....51 Pistils 2, united only by the style and stigma; fruit a schizocarp of 2 follicles (often single by abortion); plant with milky juice when fresh; leaves entire; inflorescence an umbel
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....51 Pistil 1 (of 2 or 3 fused carpels); fruit a capsule; plant lacking milky juice; leaves entire or serrate; inflorescence various (but not an umbel).
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......52 Ovary slightly to deeply 2-4-lobed; fruit a schizocarp of 4 mericarps or a drupe.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........53 Ovary deeply 4-parted; style gynobasic; fruit a schizocarp of 4 mericarps
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........53 Ovary slightly 2-4-lobed, or not at all lobed; style terminal or reduced to a sessile terminal stigma; fruit a schizocarp of 4 mericarps, or a drupe
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......52 Ovary not lobed; fruit a capsule or berry.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........54 Leaves scale-like, 1-4.5 mm long, appressed to the stem; petals 4; stamens 4
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........54 Leaves larger (or only 2-8 mm long in Pyxidanthera in DIAPENSIACEAE, but then spreading); petals 5-7; stamens 5-7.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 55 Plant a creeping subshrub (keyed here as a failsafe); leaves either 0.2-0.8 cm long and acicular, or 2-10 cm long and broadly ovate or elliptic.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..56 Leaves 0.2-0.8 cm long and acicular
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..56 Leaves 2-10 cm long and broadly ovate or elliptic
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 55 Plant an herb, erect or sprawling; leaves > 1.5 cm long.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....57 Leaves cordate at the base; plant a twining vine
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....57 Leaves cuneate to rounded at the base; plant an erect, sprawling, or reclining herb (twining in Solanum dulcamara in SOLANACEAE).
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......58 Inflorescences (solitary or of several flowers) terminal on the stem.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........59 Corolla lobes longer than the fused corolla cup, blue, pink, or white; styles 2; herbage lacking stipitate glands; fresh plants not aromatic.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........60 Flowers in axillary cymes; capsule subglobose; leaves 2-12 cm long
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........60 Flowers solitary or paired in the leaf axils; capsule cylindrical; leaves 0.5-8 cm long
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........59 Corolla lobes very short, much shorter than the corolla cup or tube, sometimes barely perceptible and represented only by teeth on the edge of the corolla limb, white or pink; style 1; herbage often with stipitate glands; fresh plants often rankly aromatic
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......58 Inflorescences (of solitary or several flowers) axillary or lateral on the stem.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 61 Flowers sessile or very-short pedicelled, solitary in the leaf axils.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..62 Stamens alternate with the corolla lobes; flower ca. 10 mm in diameter
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 61 Flowers either solitary and obviously pedicelled, or several in an axillary or lateral inflorescence.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....63 Corolla lobes longer than the fused corolla cup, blue
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....63 Corolla lobes very short, much shorter than the corolla cup or tube, sometimes barely perceptible and represented only by teeth on the edge of the corolla limb, white, yellow, pink, various other colors (rarely including blue).
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......64 Fruit a capsule, 4-seeded
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......64 Fruit a berry or capsule, many-seeded

Key Q: herbaceous dicots with whorled leaves on the stem {add [Platycodon] CAMPANULACEAE}

1 Cauline leaves palmately compound.
..2 Cauline leaves essentially sessile, and also palmately cleft to the base, and further lacerately divided into linear or oblanceolate segments
..2 Cauline leaves petiolate, with 3-5, sessile or petiolulate, ovate, elliptic, or obovate leaflets (these serrate and sometimes with additional lobes).
....3 Inflorescence a spherical umbel of many flowers; fruit a drupe with 2-3 seeds; stem leaves 3-5
......4 Leaflets 3 (-5), sessile or subsessile, the petiolules 0-3 mm long; larger leaflets 4-8 cm long, 0.5-2.5 cm wide, averaging about 2.5× as long as wide, the apex obtuse to acute; fruit yellow-green when ripe, longitudinally winged and ribbed in ×-section; petals white (rarely tinged with pink); inflorescence nodding in bud; underground storage organ a spherical tuber
......4 Leaflets (3-) 5, petiolulate, the petiolules (7-) 10-25 mm long; larger leaflets 6-15 cm long, 3.5-7 cm wide, averaging about 1.8× as long as wide, the apex acuminate; fruit bright red when ripe, smoothly elliptical in ×-section; petals light green; inflorescence erect in bud; underground storage organ an +/- elongate root, this vertical or horizontal, and sometimes branched
....3 Inflorescence of single terminal flowers on the 1-several branches; fruit an aggregate of achenes; stem leaves 3
1 Cauline leaves simple.
........5 Inflorescence an involucrate head subtended by phyllaries, heads solitary or many, variously arrayed in secondary inflorescences; fruit a cypsela
........5 Inflorescence various, but not as above; fruit various, not as above (sometimes the flowers tightly grouped, but then with other features differing, such as stamens 4, or green calyx present, or fruit a schizocarp of mericarps, etc.).
..........6 Fruit a 3-lobed, 3-locular capsule; inflorescence a cyathium, consisting of a single pistillate flower (reduced to a single 3-carpellate pistil) and 2 or more staminate flowers (each reduced to 1 stamen), borne in a cup-like involucre, the involucre bearing pointed or rounded glands, these sometimes brightly colored and petaloid, mimicking an individual flower (the cyathia then secondarily arranged in terminal cymes, or solitary and axillary, etc.); fresh plants with milky juice
..........6 Fruit various, not as above; inflorescence not a cyathium (and staminate or bisexual flowers almost always with > 1 stamen); fresh plants lacking milky juice.
............ 7 Leaves succulent, the terminal whorls closely juxtaposed; pistils 4-5; fruit an aggregate of follicles
............ 7 Leaves herbaceous, thin in texture, whorls separated; pistil 1, of 2-5 fused carpels; fruit a capsule, achene, or drupe.
............ ..8 Larger whorled leaves on a plant < 10 mm wide [some taxa keyed here and under the second lead].
............ ....9 Inflorescence a cymule, either axillary, or axillary and terminal; ovary inferior.
............ ......10 Leaves markedly variable in shape or size in each whorl; fruit a capsule; petals 5
............ ......10 Leaves similar in size and shape in each whorl; fruit dry or fleshy, indehiscent; petals (3-) 4
............ ....9 Inflorescence a terminal raceme, panicle, spike, cyme, corymb, or umbel; ovary superior.
............ ........11 Corolla bilaterally symmetrical, the petals connate; carpels 2; stamens 4, 6, or 8.
............ ..........12 Stamens 4; corolla blue or almost white
............ ..........12 Stamens 6 or 8; corolla pink or yellow
............ ........11 Corolla radially symmetrical, the petals separate; carpels 2, 3, or 5; stamens 5, 10, or many.
............ ............ 13 Inflorescence an axillary umbel; leaves narrowly linear and more than 10× as long as wide, > 20 mm long and < 2 mm wide; whorls of 3-6 leaves
............ ............ 13 Inflorescence a terminal cyme, raceme, panicle, or umbel; leaves as above, or broader in shape, narrower, or shorter; whorls of 3-16 leaves.
............ ............ ..14 Inflorescence a terminal cyme or umbel; corolla white; carpels 5.
............ ............ ....15 Leaves narrowly linear, 12-16 in each whorl; stamens 5
............ ............ ....15 Leaves ovate or obovate, 3 (-4) in each whorl
............ ............ ..14 Inflorescence a terminal raceme or panicle; corolla reddish, maroon, or yellow.
............ ............ ......16 Corolla reddish or maroon
............ ............ ......16 Corolla yellow
............ ..8 Larger whorled leaves on a plant > 10 mm wide.
............ ............ ........17 Inflorescence a spike; perianth absent; fruit a drupe
............ ............ ........17 Inflorescence various, but not a spike; perianth present; fruit various, but not a drupe.
............ ............ ..........18 Inflorescence of terminal involucrate clusters; perianth of 6 tepals; fruit an achene; stamens 9; [plants of very dry habitats]
............ ............ ..........18 Inflorescence various, but not as above; perianth of 2 whorls (the calyx often obsolete in Galium in RUBIACEAE), 3-, 4-, 5-, 6-, or 7-merous; stamens 2-7; [plants of dry-mesic to very wet habitats].
............ ............ ............ 19 Fruit dry or fleshy, indehiscent; petals (3-) 4; ovary inferior
............ ............ ............ 19 Fruit a capsule or follicle, dehiscent; petals 4-7; ovary superior.
............ ............ ............ ..20 Inflorescence an umbel; fresh plants with milky juice
............ ............ ............ ..20 Inflorescence not an umbel; fresh plants with clear juice.
............ ............ ............ ....21 Corolla pink-purple, 6-merous, the petals separate and borne on the edge of a hypanthium; stamens 8, 10, or 12; [plants of wetlands]
............ ............ ............ ....21 Corolla white, yellow, or greenish, 4-, 5-, or 7-merous, the petals fused at least basally into a tube (falling as a unit), not on a hypanthium; stamens 2, 4, 5, or 7; [plants of mesic habitats].
............ ............ ............ ......22 Stamens 2; corolla bilaterally symmetrical
............ ............ ............ ......22 Stamens 4, 5, or 7; corolla radially symmetrical.
............ ............ ............ ........23 Petals yellowish-white, with prominent green streaks; biennial or monocarpic plant, 10-30 dm tall when fertile; leaves 15-35 cm long
............ ............ ............ ........23 Petals white or yellow; perennial plants, 1-15 dm tall; leaves 1-15 cm long.
............ ............ ............ ..........24 Leaves punctate; stem without swollen nodes
............ ............ ............ ..........24 Leaves not punctate; stem with swollen nodes

Key S1: herbaceous dicots with opposite, simple, and unlobed leaves on the stem

1 Inflorescence an involucrate head subtended by phyllaries, the heads solitary or many and variously arrayed in secondary inflorescences, the ovary inferior, the corolla connate and tubular at least basally, the calyx absent, the stamens 5, the fruit a cypsela
1 Inflorescence, flower, and fruit structure various, but not with the combination of features as above (sometimes the flowers in a head, e.g. Pycnanthemum in LAMIACEAE, but then with other features differing, such as stamens 4, or green calyx present, or fruit a schizocarp of mericarps, etc.).
..2 Leaves scale-like, stems fleshy; flowers embedded in the fleshy stem, no perianth present; [saline environments (coastal or rarely inland)].
..2 Leaves small to large; stems not fleshy; flowers sessile or on pedicels; [collectively of many habitats, saline and not].
....3 Ovary inferior or partially inferior.
......4 Perianth of a single whorl (petals absent) (note that in Mirabilis in NYCTAGINACEAE the petaloid calyx is subtended by a 5-lobed fused set of involucral bracts).
........5 Leaves herbaceous, suborbicular, about as long as wide or wider than long; calyx 3- or 4-merous; stamens 4, 8, or 12.
..........6 Plant ascending, with a single node (2 leaves); leaves > 6 cm long and wide; calyx 3-merous, brown to yellowish; stamens 12
..........6 Plant creeping, with many nodes; leaves 3-15 mm long and wide; calyx 4-merous, yellow to greenish; stamens 4 or 8
........5 Leaves fleshy, linear, lanceolate, to broadly ovate, at least slightly longer than broad; calyx 5-merous; stamens 3, 5, or 10.
............ 7 Flowers axillary, sessile or nearly so, solitary or a few; petaloid sepals widely spreading, separate; leaves linear to oblanceolate; stamens 5 or 30-50
............ 7 Flowers in terminal cymose panicles; petaloid sepals connate into a narrow tube (reminiscent of the corolla of Ipomoea); leaves lanceolate, elliptic, ovate, or broadly ovate; stamens 3 or 5
......4 Perianth in 2 whorls (sepals and petals both present).
............ ..8 Petals distinct; inflorescence diffuse.
............ ....9 Leaves distinctly 3-veined from the base, the 3 veins converging again at the leaf apex
............ ....9 Leaves with prominently pinnate venation
............ ..8 Petals connate into a tube (at least basally); inflorescence often a head or dense terminal cyme (also axillary, or solitary on long peduncles).
............ ......10 Petals 5; stamens 3, 4, or 5
............ ........11 Creeping subshrub; flowers paired at tip of an upright peduncle
............ ........11 Upright herb; flowers in axils or terminal corymbs
............ ..........12 Flowers in terminal corymbs; fruit dry
............ ..........12 Flowers axillary; fruit fleshy
............ ......10 Petals 4 (or 6 or 8 in Richardia in RUBIACEAE); stamens 4, 6, or 8.
............ ............ 13 Inflorescence a head, subtended by 4 large bright white bracts
............ ............ 13 Inflorescence a head or more diffuse (see below), sometimes subtended by green bracts.
............ ............ ..14 Leaves serrate; corolla bilaterally symmetrical (especially the flowers near the outer edge of the head); inflorescence a head
............ ............ ..14 Leaves entire; corolla radially symmetrical; inflorescence a head or more diffuse (see below).
............ ............ ....15 Petals acute; flowers in terminal panicles, cymes, or panicles, or axillary; plant habit various, not simultaneously with all the characters below
............ ............ ....15 Petals broadly rounded; flowers axillary, solitary; plant a diffusely branched herb with linear leaves
....3 Ovary superior.
............ ............ ......16 Perianth of a single whorl (petals absent) or missing entirely (petals and sepals both absent). {key lead number needs adjusting}
............ ............ ........17 Inflorescence a cyathium, consisting of a single pistillate flower (reduced to a single 3-carpellate pistil) and 2 or more staminate flowers (each reduced to 1 stamen), borne in a cup-like involucre, the involucre bearing pointed or rounded glands, these sometimes brightly colored and petaloid, mimicking an individual flower (the cyathia then secondarily arranged in terminal cymes, or solitary and axillary, etc.); fresh plants with milky juice; fruit a 3-lobed, 3-locular capsule
............ ............ ........17 Inflorescence not a cyathium (and staminate or bisexual flowers with > 1 stamen, except Callitriche in PLANTAGINACEAE); fresh plants lacking milky juice; fruit various, not as above.
............ ............ ..........18 Flowers 1 (or 2) in leaf axils; leaves entire.
............ ............ ............ 19 Flowers unisexual; sepals 0; flowers (staminate) with 1 stamen
............ ............ ............ 19 Flowers bisexual; sepals 4; flowers with 2, 4, or 6 stamens.
............ ............ ............ ..20 {XXXX}
............ ............ ............ ..20 {YYYY}
............ ............ ..........18 Flowers many, in axillary spikes, cymes, or glomerules, or in terminal spikes, heads, cymes, or panicles; leaves entire or serrate.
............ ............ ............ ....21 Fruit a 2-locular capsule; {XXXX}
............ ............ ............ ....21 Fruit single-seeded, an achene or utricle; {YYYY}.
............ ............ ............ ......22 Leaves serrate, regularly and sharply so; plants with stinging hairs (or not)
............ ............ ............ ......22 Leaves entire, or with a few very obscure crenations (Iresine) or basally disposed rounded lobe-like teeth (Atriplex); plants without stinging hairs.
............ ............ ............ ........23 Leaves of a pair slightly to strongly different in size
............ ............ ............ ........23 Leaves of a pair the same size.
............ ............ ............ ..........24 Styles 1-2 (-3); leaves 2-30 mm long, 0.5-8 mm wide, linear or narrowly elliptic
............ ............ ............ ..........24 Style 1; leaves generally either longer than 30 mm, or wider than 8 mm (if linear and smaller than those dimensions, then fleshy).
............ ............ ............ ............ 25 Tepals scarious; inflorescence of heads, spikes, or panicles
............ ............ ............ ............ 25 Tepals herbaceous; inflorescence of glomerules, these axillary or arrayed in spikes or panicles
............ ............ ......16 Perianth in 2 whorls (sepals and petals both present).
............ ............ ............ ............ ..26 Gynoecium of 4-many pistils, each 1-carpellate.
............ ............ ............ ............ ....27 Pistils 4-5, in a single whorl; stamens 4, 5, 8, or 10; fruit an aggregate of follicles
............ ............ ............ ............ ....27 Pistils many, spiral; stamens many; fruit an aggregate of plumose achenes
............ ............ ............ ............ ..26 Gynoecium either of 1 pistil (with 1 or more carpels), or of 2 pistils, united only by the style and stigma (APOCYNACEAE).
............ ............ ............ ............ ......28 Petals not at all connate, not even at their bases.
............ ............ ............ ............ ........29 Leaves with pellucid punctate glands (most easily visible with transmitted light); stamens often fascicled into 3, 4, or 5 fascicles; petals yellow or pinkish
............ ............ ............ ............ ........29 Leaves lacking pellucid punctate glands; stamens not fascicled; petals variously colored.
............ ............ ............ ............ ..........30 Sepals 2; stamens opposite the petals
............ ............ ............ ............ ..........30 Sepals 3-7; stamens opposite the sepals.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 31 Petals 3; sepals 5, dimorphic, the 2 outer sepals narrower than the 3 inner and concave sepals; stamens (3-) 5-15 (-25)
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 31 Petals 4-7; sepals 4-7, normally monomorphic; stamens 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, or 12 (or sometimes rarely 2 or 3).
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..32 Capsule 2-5 (-6) locular; style 1; perianth 4-7-merous; stamens 4, 6, 8, 10, or 12
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..32 Capsule either 1-locular of 10-locular; styles 2-5; perianth 4-5-merous; stamens 4, 5, 8, or 10 (or rarely 2 or 3).
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....33 Capsule 1-locular, dehiscent apically by teeth or valves; sepals connate into a tube or separate; styles 2-5; perianth 4-5-merous; stamens 4, 5, 8, or 10 (or rarely 2 or 3)
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....33 Capsule 10-locular (each of the 5 carpels divided at maturity), septicidal; sepals distinct or nearly so; styles 5, perianth 5-merous; stamens 5
............ ............ ............ ............ ......28 Petals connate at least for a short distance at their bases.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......34 Corolla radially symmetrical (or so slightly bilaterally symmetrical as to be mistakable as radially symmetrical); stamens as many as the corolla lobes (or 1 less in Ruellia in ACANTHACEAE, Buchnera in OROBANCHACEAE, Trichostema in LAMIACEAE, and Verbena in VERBENACEAE); carpels 2 or 3.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........35 Pistils 2, united only by the style and stigma; fruit a schizocarp of 2 1-carpellate follicles (often single by abortion); plant with milky juice when fresh (except Catharanthus); leaves entire
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........35 Pistil 1 (of 2-5 fused carpels); fruit either a 2-5-carpellate capsule or of 2 or 4 1-seeded nutlets derived from 2 carpels; plant lacking milky juice; leaves entire or serrate.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........36 Ovary and capsule 3-5-carpellate; capsule 3- or 1-locular.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 37 Sepals 2
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 37 Sepals 5.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..38 Inflorescence a terminal cyme; corolla salverform, with an elongated and very narrow tube, pink or white; capsule 3-locular
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..38 Inflorescence various but not cymose, of terminal or axillary racemes or panicles, or of solitary axillary flowers; corolla connate only at the base, the petals appearing nearly separate (not salverform); capsule 1-locular
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........36 Ovary and capsule 2-carpellate; fruit either a 2-locular capsule or of 2 or 4 1-seeded nutlets derived from 2 carpels.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....39 Stamens 4-12, the same number as the corolla lobes; corolla (and the flower as a whole) strictly radially symmetrical.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......40 Capsule septicidal; corolla white, pink, blue, yellowish white, or greenish white; inflorescence either a terminal or axillary cyme, or a terminal panicle or raceme, or a terminal or axillary cyme reduced to 1 or a few flowers
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......40 Capsule loculicidal and also deeply 2-lobed; corolla white, pink, or scarlet with a yellow interior; inflorescence of cymosely arranged spikes
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....39 Stamens either 4, 1 fewer than the 5 corolla lobes, or 2 (with 2 staminodes); corolla usually slightly bilaterally symmetrical (the flower as a whole made bilaterally symmetrical by the 2 or 4 stamens).
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........41 Leaves entire; corolla tube flaring for all of its length
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........42 Fruit a schizocarp of 4 1-seeded nutlets; inflorescence terminal, of cymes; corolla ca. 5 mm long; leaves prominently 3-veined
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........42 Fruit a capsule; inflorescence axillary, of cymes or clusters (often reduced to a solitary flower); corolla > 12 mm long; leaves with single primary vein
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........41 Leaves serrate; corolla salverform, the tube narrow and nearly the same diameter for most of its length; inflorescence a terminal spike, raceme, raceme of racemes, or head.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 43 Fruit a 2-locular capsule; stamens inserted near the base of the corolla tube
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 43 Fruit a schizocarp of 4 mericarps; stamens inserted near or above the middle of the corolla tube
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......34 Corolla bilaterally symmetrical (or the corolla 2-lipped but the corolla lobes twisted so as to make the flower asymmetrical); fertile stamens fewer than the corolla lobes (except Plantago in PLANTAGINACEAE, which is equal, with 4 each; a few genera have a 5th, sterile, stamen which is obviously different in form than the 4 fertile stamens) (note that many corollas are bilabiate and the number of corolla lobes, 4 or 5, may be difficult to interpret); carpels 2.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..44 Carpels 2, each carpel slightly to deeply lobed, separating at maturity into 4 half-carpellate units (not separating in Phyla in VERBENACEAE); fruit a schizocarp of 4 mericarps (or 2 nutlets in Phyla in VERBENACEAE).
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....45 Inflorescence a thyrse, verticillaster, or terminal cyme, the flowers borne in cymose lateral branches; corolla strongly bilaterally symmetrical (rarely nearly radially symmetrical); stems square in ×-section (or sometimes rounded, especially on older growth); fresh plants often (but not always) aromatic
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....45 Inflorescence of spikes, racemes, or heads, the flowers or fruits single at nodes; corolla often nearly radially symmetrical; stems rounded in X-section (rarely square); fresh plants usually not aromatic
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..44 Carpels 2, unlobed; fruit a capsule (or an achene in Phryma).
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......46 Stamens 2.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........47 Corolla 4 lobed, almost radially symmetrical; corolla scarious, white, or bluish
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........47 Corolla 4-5-lobed, either strongly bilabiate or salverform (Pseuderanthemum in ACANTHACEAE); white, blue, or yellow.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........48 Inflorescence an axillary cluster or spike
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........48 Inflorescence of solitary (rarely 2) axillary flower. {add [Hypoestes] ACANTHACEAE}
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 49 Sepals 4
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 49 Sepals 5, distinct or nearly so.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..50 Corolla barely bilaterally symmetrical, the lobes about as long as the tube; outer sepals ovate, much wider than the inner sepals
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..50 Corolla distinctly bilabiate, the lobes shorter than the tube; sepals of nearly the same width.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....51 Sterile stamens (the lower pair) consisting of slender filaments
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....51 Sterile stamens minute or completely absent
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......46 Stamens 4.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......52 Corolla 4 lobed, nearly radially symmetrical; corolla scarious
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......52 Corolla 5-lobed, distinctly bilabiate or in some nearly radially symmetrical; corolla colored.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........53 Flowers in terminal racemes, panicles, or spikes, the inflorescence not interspersed with large, leaf-like bracts.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........54 Sepals separate to the base or nearly so, not forming a tube
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........54 Sepals connate for at least 0.3× their length to form a tube (this cup-like and flaring in Scrophularia in SCROPHULARIACEAE).
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 55 Inflorescence a diffuse panicle; corolla 5-11 mm long, reddish-brown (sometimes with some yellow); fruit a septicidal capsule
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 55 Inflorescence of 1 or more terminal (and sometimes upper axillary) spikes or racemes; corolla 10-50 mm long (6-8 mm long in Phryma in PHRYMACEAE), white, pink, blue, purple, or yellow; fruit either a loculicidal capsule (OROBANCHACEAE) or a single seeded achene (Phryma in PHRYMACEAE).
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..56 Corolla 10-50 mm long, pink, blue, purple, or yellow; fruit a loculicidal capsule
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..56 Corolla 6-8 mm long, white to pale pink; fruit a 1-seeded achene contained in the accrescent calyx, this “lopping down” against the inflorescence axis
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........53 Flowers axillary and solitary, borne in the axils of normally-sized leaves or somewhat reduced but still large and leaf-like bracts [some taxa keyed here and below].
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....57 Sepals separate to the base or nearly so, not forming a tube.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......58 Corolla distinctly bilabiate
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......58 Corolla not bilabiate, only slightly bilaterally symmetrical.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........59 Leaves serrate, 2.0-4.5 cm long; plant usually blackening on drying
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........59 Leaves entire, either mostly larger or smaller [see below]; plant not blackening on drying
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........60 Leaves 0.6-2.8 cm long, round, obovate, or broadly elliptic, < 1.8× as long as wide; plants creeping, ascending to 3 dm tall; [plants of wet places]
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........60 Leaves 3-30 cm long, narrowly elliptic to lanceolate, > 2× as long as wide; plants erect or the stems sprawling; [plants mostly of uplands]
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....57 Sepals connate for at least 0.3× their length to form a tube.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 61 Corolla yellow, orange, or red.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..62 Calyx lobes longer than the tube, or as long as the tube, corolla 25-50 mm long; plants usually blackening on drying
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..62 Calyx lobes shorter than the tube; corolla 14-22 mm long; plants not blackening on drying.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....63 Corolla red or orange, with a very narrow, cylindrical tube, the lobes then flaring into a limb about 1 cm across; plants blackening on drying; [rare alien, in crop fields, a noxious hemiparasitic weed under quarantine]
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....63 Corolla yellow, not narrowly cylindrical, the lower lip arched; plants not blackening on drying; [rare, in seepage wetlands]
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 61 Corolla white, pale blue, lavender, or pink (sometimes with some yellow).
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......64 Corolla pink (sometimes almost white), often lined with yellow inside; leaves narrowly linear, often filiform (except lanceolate in A. auriculata); plants usually blackening on drying (some species do not); corolla not strongly bilabiate
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......64 Corolla white, blue, or combinations of blue and white (sometimes with some yellow markings); leaves broader, mostly lanceolate; plants not blackening on drying; corolla strongly bilabiate.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........65 Upper lip of the corolla hooded, enfolding the anthers
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........65 Upper lip of the corolla not hooded and enclosing the anthers; plants not blackening on drying.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........66 Corolla blue; lower lip of the corolla arched upwards into the throat; plants perennial from rhizomes or crowns, 3-13 dm tall
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........66 Corolla bicolored, the upper lip white or very pale blue, the lower lip bright blue; lower lip of the corolla folded downward into a pouch enfolding the anthers; plants annuals, 0.5-4 dm tall