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Key F: woody angiosperms with alternate, compound leaves

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1 Leaves 2-foliolate or 1-foliolate (and then deeply notched).
..2 Leaves 1-foliolate (2-lobed)
..2 Leaves 2-foliolate
1 Leaves 3-, 5-, to many-foliolate.
....3 Leaves trifoliolate.
......4 Plant a liana, climbing by twining, by tendrils, or by adventitious roots.
........5 Leaves untoothed and unlobed
........5 Leaves coarsely toothed or lobed. {add Eleutherococcus trifoliatus ARALIACEAE}
..........6 Leaflets obovate or broadly elliptic (broadest at or above the middle), the teeth or lobes primarily or solely in the apical half of the leaf; plant climbing by leaf-opposed tendrils
..........6 Leaflets orbicular or ovate (broadest at the middle or below the middle), the teeth or lobes primarily or solely in the basal half of the leaf; plant climbing by stem twining or by dense, reddish adventitious roots.
............ 7 Plant climbing by the stem twining; [plant not actually woody, but so robust as to often be assumed to be so]
............ 7 Plant climbing by dense, reddish adventitious roots attaching the stem to tree trunks or rock outcrops
......4 Plant a shrub (sometimes scrambling or occasionally high-climbing with the support of other vegetation, but lacking the specialized climbing structures listed above).
............ ..8 Stems armed with small prickles or stout thorns.
............ ....9 Stems with stout thorns at the nodes; fruit a hesperidium (orange-like, but densely hairy)
............ ....9 Stems with many small prickles along the internodes; fruit either a legume, or an aggregate of drupelets, or a hip.
............ ......10 Leaflets with 2 rounded lateral lobes near the base, otherwise entire; fruit a legume
............ ......10 Leaflets serrate and sometimes also cleft; fruit either an aggregate of drupelets or a hip
............ ..8 Stems unarmed.
............ ........11 Leaflets serrulate, crenulate, serrate, with a few coarse and jagged teeth (spine-tipped or not), or shallowly lobed.
............ ..........12 Leaflets serrulate or crenulate
............ ..........12 Leaflets serrate, with a few coarse and jagged teeth (spine-tipped or not), or shallowly lobed.
............ ............ 13 Leaflets with 2 prominent, rounded lobes near the base; fruit a legume; flowers > 3 cm long, corollas bilaterally symmetrical, red, in a terminal raceme
............ ............ 13 Leaflets serrate and sometimes also cleft, or with a few coarse and jagged teeth (spine-tipped or not); fruit either a tan or red drupe or a red berry; flowers < 1 cm across, corollas radially symmetrical, green, yellow, or white, in axillary or terminal panicles or racemes
............ ............ ..14 Leaflets with a few spine-tipped teeth; fruit a red berry; [TX westwards]
............ ............ ..14 Leaflets not spine-tipped; fruit a red or tan drupe; [collectively widespread]
............ ........11 Leaflets entire and unlobed.
............ ............ ....15 Terminal leaflet sessile.
............ ............ ......16 Leaflets < 2 cm long; stems and branches dark green
............ ............ ......16 Leaflets 5-15 cm long; stems and branches tan to brown
............ ............ ....15 Terminal leaflet with a petiolule.
............ ............ ........17 Leaves pinnately trifoliolate, a rachis present as an extension of the petiole past the point of attachment of the 2 lateral leaflets, the terminal leaflet borne on a petiolule at the terminus of the rachis, with an obvious joint present between the rachis and petiolule
............ ............ ........17 Leaves palmately trifoliolate, the terminal leaflet typically with a longer petiolule than the lateral leaflets, but lacking a rachis (the petiolule of the terminal leaflet attached at the same point as the 2 lateral leaflets and unjointed)
....3 Leaves with 5-many leaflets (poorly developed leaves in some species with only 3 leaflets).
............ ............ ..........18 Leaves palmately or palmately-pedately compound.
............ ............ ............ 19 Leaves palmately-pedately 5-foliolate (the lateral 2 leaflets on each side borne on a common Y-shaped stalk).
............ ............ ............ 19 Leaves palmately compound (all the leaflets attached at a single point).
............ ............ ............ ......22 Leaflets with serrate margins.
............ ............ ............ ........23 Stems armed with prickles scattered in the internodes
............ ............ ............ ........23 Stems unarmed or with paired nodal spines.
............ ............ ............ ..........24 Inflorescence an umbel; leaves evergreen, glossy; stems often with paired nodal spines
............ ............ ............ ..........24 Inflorescence a panicle; leaves deciduous, dull; stems unarmed
............ ............ ..........18 Leaves pinnately, bipinnately, or complexly compound.
............ ............ ............ ............ 25 Leaves at least in part pinnate-pinnatifid, 2-pinnate, or otherwise more complexly compound than 1-pinnate.
............ ............ ............ ............ ..26 Leaves oddly pinnate-pinnatifid, 2-pinnately compound, or more complexly compound than 2-pinnate.
............ ............ ............ ............ ....27 Leaves pinnate-pinnatifid, with 7-19 leaflets, each leaflet pinnatifid into narrowly lanceolate lobes; {upper leaflet surface dark green, lower surface silvery with gray sericeous pubescence}
............ ............ ............ ............ ....27 Leaves 2-pinnately compound, or even more complexly compound.
............ ............ ............ ............ ........29 Plant armed with prickles on the stem, and sometimes also on the axes and main veins of the leaves
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 31 Foliage green; leaflets ovate, acute at the tip; flowers 3-merous, the tepals white or cream; fruit a red berry
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 31 Foliage blue-green; leaflets obovate, rounded or notched at the tip; flowers 4-5-merous, the sepals green, the petals yellow; fruit a capsule
............ ............ ............ ............ ..........30 Plant a tree, > 3 m tall when flowering and fruiting.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....33 Fruit a globose drupe, tan at maturity, 10-15 mm in diameter; inflorescence an axillary panicle; corolla lavender
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....33 Fruit an inflated capsule, 30-50 mm long; inflorescence a terminal thyrse; corolla yellow
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......34 Leaves even-pinnately compound (generally with 2 leaflets at the apex of the rachis, these obviously and symmetrically paired).
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........35 Leaflets rounded to obtuse at the apex (or acute to acuminate in Gymnocladus); fruit a legume; inflorescence various, but not as below
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........35 Leaflets acuminate at the apex; fruit a drupe or capsule; inflorescence a panicle with many, small, radially symmetrical flowers.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 37 Tree dioecious; drupe ca. 5 mm long; stamens (of male flowers) 3-5 (-7)
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......34 Leaves odd-pinnately compound (generally with a single leaflet at the terminus of the rachis).
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....39 Stems armed with prickles or stipular or nodal spines; leaves often also with prickles.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......40 Leaves with conspicuous leafy stipules, often adnate to the petiole; plant a liana or small to medium shrub; leaves serrate, often sharply and prominently so; leaves not strongly aromatic when fresh, lacking pellucid punctate glands on the surface
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......40 Leaves lacking leafy stipules; plant a tree or tall shrub; leaves entire or obscurely crenate or serrate; plant a tree or tall shrub; leaves either strongly aromatic when fresh, with conspicuous pellucid punctate glands or not aromatic and not pellucid-punctate.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........41 Leaves not aromatic when fresh, lacking pellucid punctate glands; leaves never with prickles on the rachis; leaflet apices rounded
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........41 Leaves strongly aromatic when fresh, with conspicuous pellucid punctate glands; leaves often with prickles on the rachis; leaflet apices usually acuminate
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....39 Stems unarmed (leaflets with spinose margins in some species, or the stem with dense hispid hairs).
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....45 Leaves with stipules; flowers bilaterally symmetrical, papilionaceous, white, cream, or pink; stamens 10; fruit a legume; [collectively widespread in our area]
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....45 Leaves without stipules; flowers radially symmetrical, whitish; stamens 5 or 10; fruit a single-seeded drupe; [FL peninsula]
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........47 Flowers bilaterally symmetrical, papilionaceous (reduced in Amorpha to a single petal); stamens 10; fruit a legume; leaves with stipules.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........47 Flowers radially symmetrical, stamens 4-5; fruit either a drupe (Anacardiaceae), or a 1-3-seeded berry or a samara (Picramniaceae); leaves without stipules.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........48 Inflorescence a raceme or compound thyrse; fruit a samara or 1-3-seeded berry; [s. FL]
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..50 Leaflets with obscure crenations, not as below nor bearing glands; leaf rachis narrowly to conspicuously winged, especially towards the tip; fruit a drupe; plant a shrub or small tree
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..50 Leaflets (especially the basal and on the basalscopic side) with 1-5 large rounded teeth, each bearing a prominent dark green gland; leaf rachis not winged; fruit a schizocarp, with 2-5 samaroid mericarps; plant a medium to large tree
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........53 Plant a tree, freely branched; rhizome inner bark not brightly colored; flowers unisexual, the male flowers in catkins, the female flowers solitary or few in a spike, the perianth greenish or tan and inconspicuous; fruit a nut covered by a dehiscent or indehiscent involucre
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........53 Plant a short shrub, < 1 m tall, little branched; rhizome inner bark of fresh plants bright yellow; flowers bisexual, petals absent, the 5 petaloid sepals maroon; inflorescence a drooping panicle from the base of the new year’s growth; fruit an aggregate of follicles
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........54 Inflorescence corymbose (flat-topped or rounded, as wide as long or wider); fruit a red pome
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........54 Inflorescence paniculate (longer than wide); fruit various (see below), but not as above.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 55 Leaves lacking stipules; flowers cream or yellow; fruit either a drupe or an inflated membranaceous capsule.

Key G1: woody plants with alternate, simple, pinnately lobed leaves

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1 Shrubs or subshrubs.
..2 Leaves 1-2 (-4) cm long, 0.11-0.3 (-0.5) mm wide, each with > 40 terete lobes; plant white or silvery-gray; inflorescence an involucrate head
..2 Leaves longer and/or wider, with a few to many flattened (< 30) lobes; plant green; inflorescence various, but not as above.
....3 Leaves > 6× as long as wide, the 14-30 lateral lobes evenly arrayed from leaf base to leaf apex; fresh plants strongly aromatic; leaf surfaces dotted with golden-yellow glands, and also pubescent
....3 Leaves < 4× as long as wide, the 2-12 lateral lobes either evenly arrayed from leaf base to leaf apex, or strongly basally oriented; fresh plants not aromatic; leaf surfaces variously pubescent, but lacking golden-yellow glands.
......4 Leaf blades 4-30 cm long; leaf lobing evenly from base to apex, or predominantly towards the tip of the leaf; flowers small, in catkins
......4 Leaf blades 2-7 cm long; leaf lobing predominantly basal (hastate, or with larger basal lobes becoming smaller and more like serrations towards the apex); flowers larger, in various diffuse inflorescences.
........5 Leaves hastate, with 2 acute basal lobes, merely serrate towards the apex; [alien species, of s. GA southward]
........5 Leaves lobate towards base, the lobes rounded in outline, progressively less lobed towards the apex, becoming doubly serrate upwards; [native and alien species, collectively widespread]
1 Trees.
..........6 Leaves even-pinnately lobed, with 4 (or sometimes 6 or 8) lobes, the apex a very broad V-notch or truncate
..........6 Leaves odd-pinnately lobed, with 3, 5, 7, etc. lobes (or sometimes with 2 lobes, but one obviously central and the other smaller and to the side, mitten-like), the apex obtuse to acute.
............ 7 Leaf lobe margins entire.
............ ..8 Leaves deeply 2- or 3-lobed (or rarely with 1-4 additional very small, tooth-like lobes towards the base), most branches with a mixture of unlobed, 2-lobed (mitten), and 3-lobed leaves; fruit a blackish-seeded drupe; fresh plants strongly aromatic
............ ..8 Leaves shallowly or deeply 3-25-lobed; fruit either an acorn or a rather fleshy spherical multiple fruit; fresh plants not aromatic.
............ ....9 Leaves shallowly or deeply 3-25-lobed; fruit a nut in a cupule (an acorn)
............ ....9 Leaves shallowly 3-lobed (or mostly unlobed); fruit a rather fleshy multiple fruit
............ 7 Leaf lobe margins serrate.
............ ......10 Leaves irregularly toothed, the teeth tipped by a soft bristle; fruit a nut in a cupule (an acorn); small to large trees
............ ......10 Leaves evenly and rather finely serrate, not bristly-tipped; fruit at least somewhat fleshy, either a pome or a multiple of nutlets surrounded by a fleshy calyx; small trees.
............ ........11 Petals absent (the individual flowers inconspicuous and aggregated into catkins); fruit a multiple, of nutlets surrounded by a fleshy calyx (mulberry) or a syconium (fig); leaves mainly larger, at least some on a branch > 8 cm long
............ ........11 Petals 5, conspicuous, white or pink; fruit a pome; leaves mainly small, generally < 8 cm long

Key G5: shrubs and subshrubs with alternate, simple, unlobed, toothed leaves

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1 Subshrubs or dwarf shrubs, aboveground stems creeping or erect, < 15 cm tall; leaves evergreen.
..2 Leaves 1.5-3 cm wide, coarsely toothed; flowers lacking sepals and petals; [alien species, sparingly naturalized or spreading in suburban situations]
..2 Leaves < 1.5 cm wide, finely toothed or entire; flowers with sepals and petals; [native species, collectively widespread and common].
....3 Leaves fleshy, terete in ×-section; petals 5, bright pink
....3 Leaves flat, not fleshy; petals white or pale pink.
......4 Leaves < 2.5 mm wide; corolla with petals distinct; plant creeping
......4 Leaves > 5 mm wide; corolla with petals fused (distinct in Chimaphila); plant creeping or erect
1 Shrubs, aboveground stems erect, > 30 cm tall; leaves evergreen or deciduous.
........5 Inflorescence an involucrate head subtended by phyllaries, the heads solitary or many and variously arrayed in secondary inflorescences, the ovary inferior, the corolla connate and tubular at least basally, the calyx absent, the stamens 5, the fruit a cypsela
........5 Inflorescence, flower, and fruit structure various, but not with the combination of features as above.
..........6 Leaves evergreen. {add to 6a Ardisia in PRIMULACEAE, Rhaphiolepis in ROSACEAE, Camellia in THEACEAE}
............ 7 Leaves glandular-punctate on one or both surfaces with golden-yellow glands; flowers unisexual, lacking a perianth; fruit a pale gray, waxy drupe with a single seed
............ 7 Leaves not glandular punctate; flowers bisexual or unisexual, with a white, pink, or yellow perianth; fruit various, a red, blue, or black drupe or berry with several seeds, or a capsule.
............ ..8 Petals connate and urceolate, white to pale pink; flowers bisexual; leaves ovate, lanceolate, or elliptic, broadest near the middle or towards the base, the teeth well-distributed along most of the margin on either side; fruit either a capsule or a red, blue, or black berry
............ ..8 Petals distinct, yellow or white; flowers unisexual or bisexual; leaves oblanceolate or elliptic, broadest towards the tip or near the middle, the teeth usually concentrated in the upper half of the leaf; fruit either a black or red drupe with several pyrenes, a red berry with several seeds, or red or black pomes.
............ ....9 Plants with nodal, simple or tripartite thorns; flowers bisexual, with a yellow perianth; fruit a red berry with several seeds
............ ....9 Plants lacking thorns; flowers unisexual or bisexual, with a white perianth; fruit either a black or red drupe with several pyrenes or a red or black pome.
............ ......10 Flowers unisexual; fruit a black or red drupe with several pyrenes
............ ......10 Flowers bisexual; fruit a red or black pome
..........6 Leaves deciduous.
............ ........11 Plants with nodal, simple or tripartite thorns; leaf teeth spinulose
............ ........11 Plants lacking thorns; leaf teeth acute, blunt, rounded, or callus-tipped, but not spinulose.
............ ..........12 Leaves crenate-wavy, with 1-2 teeth per cm of leaf margin; leaves usually obliquely cordate or angled-truncate at the base; pubescence of leaves and stems stellate
............ ..........12 Leaves crenulate, serrate or serrulate, with >2 teeth per cm of leaf margin; leaves cuneate, rounded, or subcordate at base, not oblique; pubescence of leaves and stems absent or simple.
............ ............ 13 Leaves prominently 3-veined from the base.
............ ............ ..14 Ovary 5-locular; stamens many or 5, fused or separate; fruit a 5-valved capsule or of 5 mericarps; flowers yellow or pink, or white with a pink blaze
............ ............ ..14 Ovary 3-locular; stamens 5, separate; fruit a 3-valved capsule or drupe; flowers white or pale green
............ ............ 13 Leaves pinnately veined.
............ ............ ....15 Flowers in catkins; perianth absent or very small; fruit a 1-seeded nut, samara, or waxy drupe (capsule in Salix in SALICACEAE).
............ ............ ......16 Leaves > 4 cm wide, lacking punctate glands; fruit a 1-seeded nut or samara
............ ............ ......16 Leaves < 3 cm wide, either punctate-glandular on one or both surfaces or lacking punctate glands; fruit a 1-seeded waxy drupe or a capsule.
............ ............ ........17 Leaves punctate-glandular on one or both surfaces; fruit a 1-seeded waxy drupe.
............ ............ ........17 Leaves lacking punctate glands; fruit a capsule.
............ ............ ....15 Flowers arrayed variously, but not in catkins; perianth present, conspicuous; fruit a 1-many-seeded capsule, pome, berry, or follicle.
............ ............ ..........18 Ovary inferior; fruit fleshy and indehiscent, a berry or pome.
............ ............ ............ 19 Fruit a berry; leaves lacking stipules
............ ............ ............ 19 Fruit a pome; leaves usually prominently stipular
............ ............ ..........18 Ovary superior; fruit either dry and dehiscent, a capsule or an aggregate of follicles or achenes, or fleshy and indehiscent, a drupe with 4-8 pyrenes.
............ ............ ............ ..20 Flower apocarpous; fruit an aggregate of follicles or achenes
............ ............ ............ ..20 Flower syncarpous; fruit either a capsule or a fleshy drupe.
............ ............ ............ ....21 Ovary 1-carpellate; fruit a 1-seeded drupe
............ ............ ............ ....21 Ovary 2-8-carpellate; fruit either a capsule or a drupe with 4-8 pyrenes
............ ............ ............ ......22 Ovary 2-8-locular; fruit fleshy and indehiscent, a drupe with 2-8 pyrenes; flowers mostly functionally unisexual (or sometimes bisexual in RHAMNACEAE).
............ ............ ............ ........23 Petals connate at the base; stamens alternate to the petals and opposite to the sepals; fruit 4-8-locular, with 4-8 pyrenes
............ ............ ............ ........23 Petals separate (or absent in Rhamnus alnifolia); stamens opposite to the petals (when present) and alternate to the sepals; fruit 2-4-locular, with 2-4 pyrenes
............ ............ ............ ......22 Ovary 2-3- or 5-locular; fruit dry and dehiscent, a capsule; flowers bisexual (except Stillingia in EUPHORBIACEAE).
............ ............ ............ ..........24 Ovary and capsule 5-locular; stamens 10-many.
............ ............ ............ ............ 25 Stamens 10; corolla urceolate, sympetalous
............ ............ ............ ............ 25 Stamens many; corolla spreading, apopetalous
............ ............ ............ ..........24 Ovary and capsule 2-3-locular; stamens 2, 5, or 10.
............ ............ ............ ............ ..26 Leaves > 5× as long as wide; stamens 2; ovary and capsule 3-locular; [plants of the Coastal Plain of SC, GA, AL, and FL]
............ ............ ............ ............ ..26 Leaves < 3× as long as wide; stamens 5 or 10; ovary and capsule 2-3-locular; [plants collectively widespread].
............ ............ ............ ............ ....27 Stamens 5; ovary and capsule 2-locular; leaves elliptic (widest near the middle), the teeth fine (usually > 5 points per cm of margin), and along much of the margin; inflorescence a terminal raceme; hairs of the lower leaf surface simple, erect
............ ............ ............ ............ ....27 Stamens 10; ovary and capsule 3-locular; leaves obovate (widest towards the apex), the teeth obscure to coarse (usually < 4 points per cm of margin), and primarily in the upper half of the leaf; inflorescence a terminal or axillary raceme or cyme; hairs of the lower leaf surface either simple and appressed, or stellate.
............ ............ ............ ............ ......28 Leaf margins regularly and evenly serrate in the upper half of the leaf (usually nearly entire towards the base); inflorescence an elongate, many flowered (>30) raceme borne at the end of branchlets of the season; corolla of separate petals, the stamens separate; hairs of the lower leaf surface simple and appressed
............ ............ ............ ............ ......28 Leaf margins wavy or irregularly dentate, mainly in the upper half of the leaf; inflorescence a few flowered (<20) axillary raceme, cyme, or cluster; corolla fused basally into a tube, the stamens adnate to the tube; hairs of the lower leaf surface stellate

Key G7: trees with alternate, simple, unlobed, toothed leaves

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1 Leaves evergreen.
..2 Petiole flanged or winged, constricted at the base of the blade; fruit a hesperidium
..2 Petiole linear (not flanged or winged with leafy tissue); fruit various. {add to 2b: [Sapium] EUPHORBIACEAE, [Photinia] ROSACEAE, [Prunus (caroliniana)] ROSACEAE, [Ilex (cassine, myrtifolia)] AQUIFOLIACEAE}
....3 Leaves 7-20 cm long, usually at least some on a branch > 12 cm long, thick in texture but readily flexible when fresh.
......4 Inflorescence of a solitary flower, axillary, 5-7 cm across; fruit a capsule, ca. 1 cm in diameter
......4 Incflorescence a corymb of many, smaller flowers; fruit a pome, 0.4-0.8 (-1.2) cm in diameter
....3 Leaves 3-12 cm long, thick in texture and also noticeably stiff.
........5 Leaf with a spinose margin, the marginal spines well-developed, generally arrayed along most of the leaf margin and borne at nearly a right angle to the midvein
........5 Leaf margins serrate with one or a few stiff teeth (sometimes sharpish, but not spines), these usually towards the apex of the leaf and oriented towards the leaf apex
1 Leaves deciduous.
..........6 Secondary veins neatly pinnate, the veins on each side of the midrib evenly spaced, parallel to one another, and extending nearly or actually to the leaf margin; fruit either a 1-seeded nut (dry, with or without samaroid wings, bracts, a subtending cupule, or an enclosing and valvate involucre) or a fleshy drupe with 2-4 stones.
............ 7 Leaves doubly-serrate, the number of teeth greater than the number of the pinnate secondary veins (sometimes obscurely so in Planera in ULMACEAE); fruit a nut or samaroid nut, lacking a cupule or valvate involucre, though sometimes associated with green, leaf-like bracts.
............ ..8 Flowers unisexual, in catkins, the tree monoecious; leaf base symmetrical
............ ..8 Flowers bisexual, in axillary fascicles, the tree androgynous; leaf base strongly asymmetrical (oblique) or nearly or quite symmetrical.
............ 7 Leaves singly serrate or crenate, the teeth the same number as the secondary veins; fruit either a fleshy drupe with 2-4 stones, or a nut with a cupule (acorn) or enclosed by a valvate involucre that splits at maturity.
............ ....9 Fruit a fleshy drupe with 2-4 stones
............ ....9 Fruit dry, single-seeded (or with 1-4 nuts in Castanea).
............ ......10 Fruit > 9 mm long or wide, either a nut with a cupule (acorn) or 1-4 nuts enclosed by a valvate involucre that splits at maturity
............ ......10 Fruit < 9 mm long and wide, leathery, indehiscent, winged or not
..........6 Secondary veins not as above, usually arching and/or branching or reticulating well before reaching the leaf margin; fruit various.
............ ........11 Leaves strongly 3-5-veined from the base; leaf blade cordate or truncate, often oblique.
............ ..........12 Inflorescence terminal, a compound cyme; peduncles and pedicels becoming swollen, fleshy, and juicy at maturity; [plant rarely naturalized]
............ ..........12 Inflorescence axillary, a solitary flower, a fascicle or cluster, or a cyme; peduncles and pedicels remaining stalk-like; [collectively widespread and common].
............ ............ 13 Flowers unisexual, plants monoecious; pith of mature twigs chambered with hollow sections between soft partitions
............ ............ 13 Flowers bisexual; plants hermaphroditic; pith of mature twigs continuous without hollow sections between partitions.
............ ............ ..14 Flowers bisexual; inflorescence an axillary cyme; fresh leaves and stems lacking white latex; fruit simple, a 1-seeded nut; main leaf veins splitting several times towards the leaf margin and leading into the teeth without rejoining and forming a marginal vein; basal veins 5, palmate, all joining together at the summit of the petiole; main lateral leaf veins (above the basal veins) often opposite; winter buds with 3 entire bud scales (1 much smaller than the other 2)
............ ............ ..14 Flowers unisexual, the pistillate inflorescence a head, the staminate inflorescence a catkin, borne on the same tree (monoecious) or on separate trees (dioecious); fresh leaves and stems with white latex; fruit a multiple of fleshy achenes; main leaf veins splitting towards the margin but then rejoining to form a prominent, looping (scalloped) marginal vein; basal veins 3, palmate, sometimes an additional prominent vein on each side joining the lateral vein above its divergence from the petiole end; main lateral leaf veins (above the basal veins) mainly alternate; winter buds with 5 ciliate-margined bud scales
............ ........11 Leaves pinnately veined; leaf blade base cordate, subcordate, truncate, rounded, or cuneate base, not oblique.
............ ............ ....15 Inflorescence a terminal raceme of racemes, with more than 50 flowers; petals connate, urceolate; fruit a 5-valved capsule, < 6 mm in diameter; fresh leaves with a sour taste
............ ............ ....15 Inflorescence various, either with < 30 flowers or if with > 50 flowers a catkin (with a single axis); corolla with separate petals (or petals absent); fruit various, fleshy or dry, if a 5-valved capsule (Franklinia in THEACEAE), then 15-20 mm in diameter; fresh leaves without a sour taste.
............ ............ ......16 Pubescence stellate (look especially in vein axils on the undersurface of the leaf)
............ ............ ......16 Pubescence simple (or absent).
............ ............ ........17 Flowers very large and showy, 7-9 cm across; fruit a subglobose capsule 1.5-2 cm in diameter
............ ............ ........17 Flowers less than 2 cm across; fruit either fleshy and indehiscent, a drupe, samara, or pome, or dry and dehiscent, an ovoid or lanceolate capsule < 0.7 cm in diameter.
............ ............ ..........18 Flowers unisexual, borne either in axillary catkins; trees dioecious; fruit either dehiscent, a lanceoloid or ovoid capsule (SALICACEAE) or indehiscent, a samara (Eucommia ulmoides).
............ ............ ............ 19 Plants bearing latex; fruit a samara, 25-32 mm long, the apex emarginate
............ ............ ............ 19 Plants not bearing latex; fruit a lanceoloid or ovoid capsule
............ ............ ..........18 flowers bisexual (unisexual in Ilex in AQUIFOLIACEAE), borne variously in terminal or axillary clusters, cymes, racemes, or umbels, but not at all catkin-like; trees hermaphroditic (dioecious in AQUIFOLIACEAE); fruit indehiscent, a fleshy drupe or pome with 1-many seeds.
............ ............ ............ ..20 Pith of twigs with transverse diaphragms and also continuous between the diaphragms (make a longitudinal section of twig and use at least 10× magnification; look for translucent diaphragms spaced at < 1 mm apart, with whiter pith tissue between them); fruit distinctly longer than broad, a 1-seeded drupe
............ ............ ............ ..20 Pith of twigs lacking diaphragms, continuous and homogeneous; fruit either suborbicular to spherical or pear-shaped, either a several- to many-seeded pome, or a berry-like drupe with 4-8 seeds, or a 1-seeded drupe.
............ ............ ............ ....21 Vascular bundle scars 1 in each leaf scar; fruit a berrylike drupe with 4-8 bony pyrenes; ovary superior, the calyx persistent at the base of the fruit
............ ............ ............ ....21 Vascular bundle scars (2-) 3 in each leaf scar; fruit a pome or 1-seeded drupe; ovary either inferior and the calyx persistent at the summit of the fruit (Amelanchier, Crataegus, Malus, Pyrus) or superior and the calyx not at all persistent at the base of the fruit (Prunus)

Key N1: herbaceous dicots with mainly basal, compound leaves

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1 Leaves either 2-3-foliolate or palmately 4-11-foliolate (all the leaflets attached at a common point).
..2 Leaves 2-foliolate; fruit a capsule, opening by a circumscissile lid
..2 Leaves either 3-foliolate or palmately or pedately 4-11-foliolate.
....3 Inflorescence an involucrate head subtended by phyllaries, the heads solitary or many and variously arrayed in secondary inflorescences, the ovary inferior, the corolla connate and tubular at least basally, the calyx absent, the stamens 5, the fruit a cypsela
....3 Inflorescence, flower, and fruit structure various, but not with the combination of features as above.
......4 Inflorescence an umbel; ovary inferior; fruit a mericarp of 2 schizocarps
......4 Inflorescence various, usually not an umbel (sometimes an umbel in Oxalis in OXALIDACEAE); ovary superior; fruit an aggregate, legume, berry, or 2-valved capsule.
........5 Leaflets either entire or barely and very shallowly crenulate or notched at the tip (but otherwise entire).
..........6 Inflorescence a spadix, surrounded by a spathe; fruit a berry; [Monocots {illogically keyed here because of the likelihood of being mistaken for a dicot}]
..........6 Inflorescence a raceme or umbel, not surrounded by a spathe; fruit a capsule or legume; [Eudicots].
............ 7 Flowers bilaterally symmetrical; fruit a legume; [plant of uplands]
............ 7 Flowers radially symmetrical; fruit a 2-valved or 5-valved capsule; [plant of uplands or wetlands]
............ ..8 Leaflets not notched at the tip; flowers white; [plants of saturated saturated or ponded wetlands]
............ ..8 Leaflets notched at the tip; flowers pink, white, or yellow; [plants of uplands or temporarily flooded wetlands]
........5 Leaflets serrate, serrulate, or cleft.
............ ....9 Petals 4; stamens 6; fruit a silique
............ ....9 Petals 5 or more; stamens 10 or more; fruit either a legume or an aggregate of achenes or follicles
............ ......10 Stamens many, fused into a staminal tube; carpels 10-20, in a ring; pubescence stellate (sometimes mixed with simple hairs)
............ ......10 Stamens 10-many, separate, or fused but not all into a staminal tube; carpel either 1 (FABACEAE), or 3-7 in a ring (RANUNCULACEAE), or many and spirally arranged on a conical receptacle (RANUNCULACEAE or ROSACEAE)
............ ........11 Leaflets serrulate; flowers bilaterally symmetrical; fruit a legume; corolla variously colored, including white
............ ........11 Leaflets serrate; flowers radially symmetrical; fruit an aggregate of achenes or of follicles; corolla white or yellowish or greenish.
............ ..........12 Fruit an aggregate of follicles
............ ..........12 Fruit an aggregate of achenes (borne on a fleshy, expanded receptacle in Fragaria and some Potentilla)
............ ............ 13 Flowers lacking a hypanthium
............ ............ 13 Flowers with a hypanthium
1 Leaves 1-pinnately compound (all leaflets attached to a central rachis) or more complexly compound (with several orders of branching, some leaflets at least attached to second-order branches from the rachis).
............ ............ ..14 Leaves 1-pinnately compound (all leaflets attached to a central rachis).
............ ............ ....15 Inflorescence an involucrate head subtended by phyllaries, the heads solitary or many and variously arrayed in secondary inflorescences, the ovary inferior, the corolla connate and tubular at least basally, the calyx absent, the stamens 5, the fruit a cypsela
............ ............ ....15 Inflorescence, flower, and fruit structure various, but not with the combination of features as above.
............ ............ ......16 Flowers bilaterally symmetrical; fruit a legume
............ ............ ......16 Flowers radially symmetrical; fruit a silique/silicle, or a schizocarp of mericarps, or an achene.
............ ............ ........17 Petals 4; stamens 6; fruit a silique/silicle
............ ............ ........17 Petals 0 or 5 (if 0, the sepals petaloid); stamens 2, 4, 5, or many.
............ ............ ..........18 Stamens 5; fruit a schizocarp of 2 mericarps
............ ............ ..........18 Stamens 2, 4, or many; fruit an achene
............ ............ ..14 Leaves more complexly compound (with 2 or more orders of branching, some leaflets at least attached to second-order branches from the rachis).
............ ............ ............ 19 Inflorescence an involucrate head subtended by phyllaries, the heads solitary or many and variously arrayed in secondary inflorescences, the ovary inferior, the corolla connate and tubular at least basally, the calyx absent, the stamens 5, the fruit a cypsela
............ ............ ............ 19 Inflorescence, flower, and fruit structure various, but not with the combination of features as above (sometimes the flowers in a head subtended by bracts, but then with other features differing, such as stamens 4, or green calyx present, or petals separate, or fruit a schizocarp of mericarps, etc.).
............ ............ ............ ..20 Leaf segments or ultimate lobes linear or lanceolate, > 2× as long as wide, < 4 mm wide.
............ ............ ............ ....21 Inflorescence an umbel; ovary inferior; fruit a mericarp of 2 schizocarps
............ ............ ............ ....21 Inflorescence various, but not an umbel; ovary superior; fruit an aggregate of follicles or an elongate capsule.
............ ............ ............ ......22 Carpels 2, fused; fruit an elongate capsule; flowers bilaterally symmetrical
............ ............ ............ ......22 Carpels 5-10 or many, separate; fruit an aggregate; flower radially symmetrical
............ ............ ............ ..20 Leaf segments or ultimate lobes ovate or elliptic, < 3× as long as wide, > 5 mm wide.
............ ............ ............ ........23 Inflorescence an umbel; ovary inferior; fruit a mericarp of 2 schizocarps or a 5-seeded drupe.
............ ............ ............ ........23 Inflorescence various, but not an umbel; fruit an aggregate of follicles or achenes, an elongate capsule, or a naked seed resembling a drupe.
............ ............ ............ ............ 25 Leaflets with < 10 ultimate ‘points’ (lobe or tooth terminations), these rounded to broadly acute, often large in comparison to the leaflet and appearing as “sublobes”; pistil 1 or 4-many.
............ ............ ............ ............ ..26 Corolla bilaterally symmetrical; fruit an elongate capsule; [cultivated alien, rarely persistent near gardens]
............ ............ ............ ............ ..26 Corolla radially symmetrical; fruit an aggregate of follicles or achenes, or a naked seed resembling a drupe; [native plants of moist to dry forests and rock outcrops].
............ ............ ............ ............ ....27 Leaflets 5-8 cm long, obviously longer than broad; pistil 1; fruit a naked blue seed resembling a drupe; flowers mainly 3-merous
............ ............ ............ ............ ....27 Leaflets 1-6 cm long, about as long as broad if > 4 cm long; pistils 4-many; fruit an aggregate of follicles or achenes; flowers mainly 4-5-merous
............ ............ ............ ............ 25 Leaflets with >11 ultimate ‘points’ (lobe or tooth terminations), these acuminate to acute; pistils 1-8.
............ ............ ............ ............ ......28 Pubescence of the stem and lower leaf surface glandular; flowers unisexual, on the same plant (monoecious); stamens 10; pistils 2, partly fused; fruit an aggregate of follicles
............ ............ ............ ............ ......28 Pubescence of the stem and lower leaf surface non-glandular (or absent); flowers either bisexual (the plants hermaphroditic), or unisexual and the male and female flowers on separate plants (the plants dioecious); stamens 15 or more; pistils 1-8, separate; fruit an aggregate of follicles, a follicle, or a red or white berry.
............ ............ ............ ............ ........29 Flowers bisexual (plants hermaphroditic); carpels 1-8 per flower; inflorescence a raceme, or a panicle of racemes with just a few branches; fruit an aggregate of follicles, a follicle, or a red or white berry
............ ............ ............ ............ ........29 Flowers unisexual (plants dioecious); carpels 3-4 per pistillate flower; inflorescence a panicle of racemes, with numerous branches; fruit an aggregate of follicles

Key N2: herbaceous dicots with mainly basal, simple leaves

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1 Inflorescence an involucrate head subtended by phyllaries, the heads solitary or many and variously arrayed in secondary inflorescences, the ovary inferior, the corolla connate and tubular at least basally, the calyx absent, the stamens 5, the fruit a cypsela
1 Inflorescence, flower, and fruit structure various, but not with the combination of features as above (sometimes the flowers in a head subtended by bracts, e.g. Eryngium in APIACEAE, but then with other features differing, such as stamens 4, or green calyx present, or petals separate, or fruit a schizocarp of mericarps, etc.).
..2 Basal leaves 2-lobed, pinnately lobed, or palmately lobed (not considering cordate, hastate, or auriculate leaf bases as “lobed”).
....3 Basal leaves 2-lobed, hinged between the lobes, each lobe with stiff, marginal, eyelash-like bristles; [Coastal Plain of NC and SC, rarely planted and weakly naturalized elsewhere]
....3 Basal leaves 3-many-lobed, palmately or pinnately; [collectively widespread].
......4 Leaf lobing pinnate.
........5 Gynoecium of separate pistils (each with a single carpel); fruit an aggregate
........5 Gynoecium of a single pistil (with 2, rarely more, carpels); fruit simple.
..........6 Stamens many; sepals 2, petals 4; fresh plants with yellow, orange, or white milky juice
..........6 Stamens 4, 5, or 6; sepals 4 or 5; petals 4 or 5.
............ 7 Petals 4, distinct; stamens 6
............ 7 Petals 5, fused; stamens 2, 4, or 5.
............ ..8 Corolla radially symmetrical; stamens 5
............ ..8 Corolla 2-lipped, bilaterally symmetrical or asymmetrical; stamens 2 or 4.
............ ....9 Corolla lobes not twisted, the flower bilaterally symmestrical; stamens 2
............ ....9 Corolla lobes twisted so as to make the flower asymmetrical; stamens 4
......4 Leaf lobing palmate.
............ ......10 Petiole attachment peltate.
............ ........11 Leaves < 10 cm in diameter
............ ........11 Leaves > 15 cm in diameter
............ ......10 Petiole attachment marginal.
............ ..........12 Ovary inferior.
............ ............ 13 Petals 4; stamens 8; fruit a capsule
............ ............ 13 Petals 5; stamens 5; fruit a schizocarp of 2 mericarps.
............ ............ ..14 Fruit tuberculate; leaves 3-lobed
............ ............ ..14 Fruit smooth; leaves with 5 or more lobes
............ ..........12 Ovary superior, or half-inferior by fusion of a hypanthium a part of the way up the ovary wall.
............ ............ ....15 Gynoecium of separate pistils (each with a single carpel); fruit an aggregate.
............ ............ ......16 Perianth of 5 green sepals and 5 colored petals.
............ ............ ........17 Carpels partly fused, arrayed in a ring of 10-20
............ ............ ........17 Carpels separate, spiral, many
............ ............ ......16 Perianth of a single whorl of 3-12 petaloid sepals (the petals absent or small and rudimentary).
............ ............ ..........18 Leaves 2, the single flower terminal and associated with the upper leaf; fruit an aggregate of berries
............ ............ ..........18 Leaves normally > 2, flowers not as above; fruit an aggregate of achenes, utricles, or follicles
............ ............ ....15 Gynoecium of a single pistil (with 1-5 carpels); fruit simple.
............ ............ ............ 19 Hypanthium present, partially fused or not fused to the pistil; ovary partially inferior to superior
............ ............ ............ 19 Hypanthium absent; ovary superior.
............ ............ ............ ..20 Petals connate at base; leaves sharply toothed
............ ............ ............ ..20 Petals distinct; leaves with rounded lobes or teeth.
............ ............ ............ ....21 Corolla radially symmetrical; petals 8-12; capsule fusiform, narrowed to both ends, > 5× as long as wide
............ ............ ............ ....21 Corolla bilaterally symmetrical; petals 5; capsule ovoid, < 2× as long as wide
..2 Basal leaves not lobed, at most serrate or crenate (and sometimes also cordate, hastate, auriculate, or peltate at the base).
............ ............ ............ ......22 Basal leaves petiolate, the blade with a cordate, hastate, auriculate, or peltate base.
............ ............ ............ ..........24 Inflorescence a terminal and/or axillary raceme, panicle, or cyme of many small flowers; fruit an achene; perianth uniseriate, of 0, 4-5, or 6 tepals.
............ ............ ............ ............ 25 Flowers unisexual; staminate flowers 4-5 tepals, pistillate flowers lacking a perianth
............ ............ ............ ..........24 Inflorescence either a terminal spike, or a 1-7-flowered terminal cyme, or of a solitary axillary or terminal flower; fruit various; perianth biseriate (of differentiated sepals and petals (except uniseriate, of 3 fused sepals in ARISTOLOCHIACEAE).
............ ............ ............ ............ ..26 Flowers bilaterally symmetrical; inflorescence a terminal spike (with > 20 flowers); petals 4, usually scarious, transparent; sepals 4, green; stamens 4
............ ............ ............ ............ ..26 Flowers radially symmetrical; inflorescence either of a solitary flower or of a 1-7-flowered terminal cyme; petals 5, 8-12, or 0; sepals 5 (green), 3 (brown), or 5-9 (yellow); stamens 5, 12, or many.
............ ............ ............ ............ ....27 Gynoecium of separate pistils (each with a single carpel); fruit an aggregate of achenes or follicles; flowers bright yellow, either of 5-9 distinct petaloid sepals, or of 8-12 distinct petals subtended by 3-4 green distinct sepals
............ ............ ............ ............ ....27 Gynoecium either of a single pistil with 6 carpels or of a single pistil with 4 carpels or of 2 nearly separate carpels; fruit a simple capsule (or deeply 2-lobed); flowers white, brown, or greenish, either of 5 fused or distinct white petals and 5 fused or distinct green sepals, or of 3 fused brown or greenish petaloid sepals.
............ ............ ............ ............ ......28 Flowers brown or green, of 3 fused brown or greenish petaloid sepals (and 0 petals); carpels 6; stamens 12; leaves 4-10 cm wide
............ ............ ............ ............ ......28 Flowers white, of 5 white or whitish petals and 5 green sepals; carpels 2; stamens 5; leaves 1-12 (-15) cm wide
............ ............ ............ ............ ........29 Petals separate; sepals separate; plant glabrous
............ ............ ............ ............ ........29 Petals fused; sepals fused; carpels 2; plant pubescent.
............ ............ ............ ........23 Leaf margins crenate, serrate, or incised.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 31 Gynoecium of separate pistils (each with a single carpel); fruit an aggregate; perianth of 5 green sepals and 5 colored petals.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..32 Carpels 10-20, partly fused, arrayed in a ring; petals white, pink, red, or purplish
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..32 Carpels many, separate, spiral; petals yellow or white.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....33 Flowers lacking a hypanthium; fruit an aggregate of achenes or aggregate of follicles
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....33 Flowers with a hypanthium; fruit an aggregate of drupelets or aggregate of achenes
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 31 Gynoecium of a single pistil (with 1-5 carpels); fruit simple.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......34 Flowers bilaterally symmetrical; inflorescence of a solitary flower; fruit a 3-locular capsule
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......34 Flowers radially symmetrical; inflorescence an umbel (or composite of umbelliform units, or a terminal panicle.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........35 Ovary superior; inflorescence a terminal panicle or terminal raceme.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........36 Inflorescence a terminal raceme; perianth of 4 green sepals and 4 white petals; fruit a silique/silicle; fresh foliage in spring and summer with a strong garlic odor; larger leaves < 10 cm in diameter
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........36 Inflorescence a terminal panicle; perianth of 6 cream-colored petaloid sepals; fruit a winged achene; fresh foliage lacking a garlic odor; larger leaves typically > 30 cm in diameter
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........35 Ovary inferior; inflorescence an umbel (or a composite of umbellate units); fruit a schizocarp of mericarps.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 37 Petiole attachment marginal (the blade cleft to the petiole.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..38 Leaf blades longer than wide, sharply V-cleft at the base and otherwise shallowly denticulate
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..38 Leaf blades as broad or broader than long, cleft at the base and also irregularly serrate or crenate around the margin
............ ............ ............ ......22 Basal leaves petiolate or not, with a truncate, rounded, or cuneate leaf base.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....39 Leaves tubular, with a sutured ventral flange, erect or reclining, adapted as a pitfall for insects (flat, phyllodial leaves sometimes present as well, common in the winter in some species, such as S. oreophila)
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......40 Stem leaves opposite; perianth 5-merous, at least the corolla bilaterally symmetrical (barely so in VALERIANACEAE), or the parts curved so as to be asymmetrical (Pedicularis in OROBANCHACEAE); stamens 2, 3, or 4.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........42 Corolla narrowly tubular, the five lobes flaring at nearly 90 degrees and nearly radially symmetrical
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........42 Corolla distinctly 2-lipped (with prominently large upper and lower corolla lobes) or hooded (the upper lip hood-like), distinctly bilaterally symmetrical, or the lobes twisted so as to make the corolla asymmetrical.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 43 Corolla yellow, the upper lip often slightly to strongly maroon, hooded but the corolla lobes twisted so as to make the flower asymmetrical
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 43 Corolla white, lavender, or blue, 2-lipped and bilaterally symmetrical.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......40 Stem leaves alternate; perianth radially symmetrical (less commonly bilaterally symmetrical); stamens 5, 6-8, 9, 10 (rarely 4).
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........48 Pistils many, each with a single carpel; fruit an aggregate of achenes
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........48 Pistil 1, with 1-5 carpels; fruit simple (a legume, silique/silicle, capsule, utricle, or schizocarp of 4 nutlets).
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 49 Corolla bilaterally symmetrical (barely so in Limosella in SCROPHULARIACEAE); stamens 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..56 Perianth of green sepals and more brightly colored petals; stamens 5 or 10; carpels 2, 3, 4, or 5.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....57 Leaves covered with sticky, gland-tipped hairs (often red), as flypaper traps for insects
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......64 Inflorescence a somewhat to very diffuse panicle, with 3 or more orders of branching, not giving at all the impression that the overall inflorescence is made of racemose units.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........65 Leaves serrate or crenate; stamens 10; [plants of various habitats, especially rock outcrops and bottomland forests and streambanks, never in tidal marshes]
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......64 Inflorescence either a single terminal raceme (sometimes spike-like), or of 1 to several terminal and axillary racemes (these sometimes combined into a diffuse panicle, but one whose structure is clearly made up of many racemes).
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........66 Inflorescence of 1-several terminal and axillary racemes, the plant typically well-branched, especially from the base; stamens 5
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........66 Inflorescence of a single, terminal raceme, the plant unbranched; stamens 10 (or 5, with 5 staminodes)

Key O: herbaceous dicots with alternate, compound leaves on the stem

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1 Leaves either 3-foliolate or palmately 4-11-foliolate (all the leaflets attached at a common point, or the leaflets slightly pedate in Helleborus in RANUNCULACEAE).
..2 Inflorescence an involucrate head subtended by phyllaries, the heads solitary or many and variously arrayed in secondary inflorescences, the ovary inferior, the corolla connate and tubular at least basally, the calyx absent, the stamens 5, the fruit a cypsela
..2 Inflorescence, flower, and fruit structure various, but not with the combination of features as above. {add under 2b [Cynosciadium] APIACEAE; [Cannabis] CANNABACEAE}
....3 Leaflets obviously and sharply serrate; pistils 5-many; fruit an aggregate of achenes, drupelets, or follicles.
......4 Leaflets 7-11, slightly pedate in their arrangement, evergreen
......4 Leaflets 3-5, palmate, deciduous
....3 Leaflets entire, finely denticulate, or very obscurely toothed (or irregularly serrate or lobed in Cardamine in BRASSICACEAE); pistil 1; fruit simple, a legume, capsule, silique, or berry.
........5 Corolla bilaterally symmetrical; petals 5; fruit a legume; carpel 1
........5 Corolla radially symmetrical; petals 4 or 5; fruit either an elongate capsule or a berry; carpels 1, 2, or 5.
..........6 Leaflets radially arranged at the summit of the petiole, not differentiated in size or placement into a terminal leaflet and 2 lateral leaflets; leaflets prominently notched at the apex; petals 5, yellow; inflorescence axillary, cymose or umbelliform; carpels 5
..........6 Leaflets differentiated in size and placement into a terminal leaflet and 2 or more lateral leaflets; leaflets not regularly notched at the apex (a few may be slightly retuse); petals 4, white, pink, or yellow; inflorescence terminal and racemose; carpels 1 or 2.
............ 7 Carpels 2; fruit a red berry; petals connate, purplish-blue
............ 7 Carpel 1; fruit a capsule; petals separate, white, pink, or yellow.
............ ..8 Stem leaves 1-3, alternate [or whorled or opposite]; leaflets 3, irregularly serrate, lacerate, or additionally divided or lobed; fruit a silique; carpels 2
............ ..8 Stem leaves >3, alternate; leaflets (1-) 3-7, each entire or obscurely toothed; fruit a capsule; carpel 1
1 Leaves either 1-pinnately compound (all leaflets attached to a central rachis) or more complexly compound (with several orders of branching, some leaflets at least attached to second-order branches from the rachis).
............ ....9 Inflorescence an involucrate head subtended by phyllaries, heads solitary or many, variously arrayed in secondary inflorescences; fruit a cypsela; ovary inferior
............ ....9 Inflorescence various, but not as above; fruit various, not as above; ovary superior.
............ ......10 Leaves 1-pinnately compound (all leaflets attached to a central rachis).
............ ........11 Flowers bilaterally symmetrical, papilionaceous; fruit a legume; leaves even-pinnately or odd-pinnately compound, the terminal leaflet sometimes replaced by a tendril; leaflets entire or at most minutely denticulate
............ ........11 Flowers radially symmetrical (or barely bilaterally symmetrical in Erodium in GERANIACEAE); fruit a capsule, capsular but of 5 mericarps, or an aggregate of achenes, nutlets, or follicles (in some cases the # of pistils from many down to 2 or even 1); leaves odd-pinnately compound, never with tendrils; leaflets serrate (or entire to shallowly lobed in Polemonium in POLEMONIACEAE, Cardamine in BRASSICACEAE, and Floerkea in LIMNANTHACEAE).
............ ..........12 Pistils many (only 1-2 in Agrimonia, Poteridium, Poterium, and Sanguisorba); fruit an aggregate of achenes, nutlets, or follicles; hypanthium present; stamens 5-many (only 4 in Poteridium and Sanguisorba)
............ ..........12 Pistil 1 (or deeply 2-3-lobed in Floerkea in LIMNANTHACEAE); fruit a silique, capsule, schizocarp of 2-3 mericarps, or a capsular schizocarp of 5 mericarps (Erodium in GERANIACEAE); hypanthium absent; stamens 3-6.
............ ............ ..14 Petals 4, distinct; stamens 6; inflorescence a terminal raceme; fruit a silique/silicle
............ ............ ..14 Petals 5, fused (distinct in Erodium in GERANIACEAE); stamens 5; inflorescence axillary or terminal, cymose, consisting of subcapitate, umbel-like, or helicoid cymes; fruit either a capsule, or a capsular schizocarp of 5 mericarps (Erodium in GERANIACEAE).
............ ............ ....15 Flowers slightly bilaterally symmetrical (2 of the petals of different size than the other 3); fruit a capsular schizocarp of 5 mericarps; carpels 5
............ ............ ....15 Flowers radially symmetrical; fruit either a loculicidal capsule or a berry; carpels 2 or 3.
............ ............ ......16 Fruit a berry; fresh plant rankly fragrant
............ ............ ......16 Fruit a capsule; fresh plant not aromatic.
............ ............ ........17 Capsule 2-valvate; carpels 2; leaflets prominently serrate or with some tooth-like sublobes
............ ............ ........17 Capsule 3-valvate; carpels 3; leaflets with entire margins
............ ......10 Leaves more complexly compound (with 2 or more orders of branching, some leaflets at least attached to second-order branches from the rachis).
............ ............ ..........18 Leaves 2× even-pinnate; flowers in spikes or spherical heads; {XXXX}
............ ............ ..........18 Leaves either 2× odd-pinnate or more complexly 2-4× ternately or ternately-pinnately compound; {YYYY}.
............ ............ ............ 19 Leaf segments linear, less than 2 mm wide.
............ ............ ............ ..20 Inflorescence an umbel; ovary inferior, of 2 fused carpels; fruit a schizocarp of 2 mericarps
............ ............ ............ ..20 Inflorescence either a terminal solitary flower or terminal raceme or panicle; ovary superior, either of 2 fused carpels or of 1-5or many distinct 1-carpellate pistils; fruit either a capsule or an aggregate of follicles or achenes.
............ ............ ............ ....21 Ovary of 2 fused carpels; fruit a capsule (1-seeded and indehiscent in Fumaria)
............ ............ ............ ....21 Ovary of 1-5or many distinct 1-carpellate pistils; fruit an aggregate of follicles or achenes
............ ............ ............ 19 Leaf segments broader, lanceolate, ovate, or elliptic, > 5 mm wide.
............ ............ ............ ......22 Herbaceous vine climbing by axillary tendrils; stamens 8
............ ............ ............ ......22 Erect or sprawling herb; stamens 5-6 or >15.
............ ............ ............ ........23 Leaflets sharply serrate, with usually many teeth on each leaflet side, the total number of “points” per leaflet > 10.
............ ............ ............ ..........24 Inflorescence an umbel; ovary inferior, of 2 fused carpels; fruit a schizocarp of 2 mericarps; inflorescence an umbel
............ ............ ............ ..........24 Inflorescence a panicle or raceme; ovary superior, of 1-8 carpels; fruit an aggregate of follicles, a single follicle, or an indeshiscent berry-like fruit.
............ ............ ............ ............ 25 Flowers bisexual; carpels 1-8; fruit an aggregate of follicles, a single follicle, or an indeshiscent berry-like fruit
............ ............ ............ ............ 25 Flowers unisexual; carpels (in pistillate flowers) of 3 (-5) carpels; fruit an aggregate of follicles
............ ............ ............ ........23 Leaflets entire, or with 1-several, broad, obtuse, rounded, or broadly acute “sublobes”, especially towards the tip of the leaflet, the total number of “points” per leaflet < 10.
............ ............ ............ ............ ..26 Inflorescence an umbel; ovary inferior, of 2 fused carpels; fruit a schizocarp of 2 mericarps
............ ............ ............ ............ ..26 Inflorescence a raceme, panicle, or cyme; ovary superior, of either 1-2 fused carpels or of many separate 1-carpellate pistils.
............ ............ ............ ............ ....27 Perianth bilaterally symmetrical, the corolla of 4 fused petals; plant a scandent vine or erect or sprawling herb
............ ............ ............ ............ ....27 Perianth radially symmetrical, of 1-5 whorls of separate perianth parts; plant an erect herb.
............ ............ ............ ............ ......28 Perianth of 4-5 whorls of 3 parts each (some of the whorls modified into nectaries); pistil 1, 1-carpellate; fruit a drupelike, blue, naked seed; largest leaflets > 6 cm long, obviously longer than wide
............ ............ ............ ............ ......28 Perianth of 1 whorl; of 4-5 parts; pistils many, each 1-carpellate; fruit an aggregate of achenes or an aggregate of follicles; largest leaflets either < 6 cm long, or if longer than 6 cm, also about as wide as long

Key P2: herbaceous dicots with alternate, simple, and palmately lobed leaves on the stem

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1 Inflorescence an involucrate head subtended by phyllaries, the heads solitary or many and variously arrayed in secondary inflorescences, the ovary inferior, the corolla connate and tubular at least basally, the calyx absent, the stamens 5, the fruit a cypsela
1 Inflorescence, flower, and fruit structure various, but not with the combination of features as above (sometimes the flowers in a head, e.g. Eryngium in APIACEAE, but then with other features differing, such as stamens 4, or green calyx present, or fruit a schizocarp of mericarps, etc.).
..2 Plant a vine, climbing by tendrils or twining.
....3 Vine climbing by twining.
......4 Leaf margins entire; flowers bisexual; plants hermaphroditic; petals connate, large and showy
......4 Leaf margins serrate; flowers unisexual; plants dioecious; petals absent
....3 Vine climbing by tendrils.
........5 Ovary inferior; petals connate; flowers unisexual
........5 Ovary superior; petals distinct; flowers bisexual
..2 Plant an herb, sometimes sprawling, reclining (e.g. Cymbalaria in PLANTAGINACEAE, Aconitum in RANUNCULACEAE), but lacking climbing adaptations such as tendrils or twining stems.
..........6 Ovary inferior; inflorescence an umbel; fruit a schizocarp of 2 mericarps
............ 7 Involucre well-developed and obvious
............ 7 Involucre absent or minute
..........6 Ovary superior; inflorescence various, not an umbel; fruit various, a capsule, an aggregate of achenes or follicles, a ring of (>2) mericarps.
............ ..8 Perianth uniseriate, the corolla absent (the calyx petaloid and white in Cnidoscolus); flowers unisexual; plants either with stinging hairs or not
............ ..8 Perianth biseriate (uniseriate in Aphanes in ROSACEAE and in Trautvetteria in RANUNCULACEAE); flowers bisexual; plants lacking stinging hairs.
............ ....9 Pistils many (or 2-3 in Aphanes in ROSACEAE), each with 1 carpel, arranged spirally or in a ring (if in a ring, of 2-5); fruit an aggregate of achenes, follicles, or utricles.
............ ......10 Perianth bilaterally symmetrical, either hooded or spurred; fruit an aggregate of follicles
............ ......10 Perianth radially symmetrical, not hooded or spurred; fruit an aggregate of utricles or achenes (plumose achenes in Geum)
............ ........11 Stamens showy, bright white, dilated towards the tip; pistils ca. 15; fruit an aggregate of utricles
............ ........11 Stamens not showy, white, or dilated towards the tip; pistils many (> 25); fruit an aggregate of achenes.
............ ..........12 Flowers lacking a hypanthium; achenes short-beaked
............ ..........12 Flowers with a prominent hypanthium; achenes with an elongate, plumose beak
............ ....9 Pistil 1, with 1-to many carpels (in many MALVACEAE, the carpels loosely united in a ring of more than 5 around the style); fruit a capsule, an achene, a follicle, or a ring of 3 or 5-many 1-seeded mericarps.
............ ............ 13 Perianth uniseriate, the corolla absent
............ ............ 13 Perianth biseriate, with well-developed and differentiated calyx and corolla
............ ............ ..14 Corolla bilaterally symmetrical, the petals connate (except distinct in Delphinium in RANUNCULACEAE); fruit a capsule, a follicle, or a schizocarp of 3 1-seeded mericarps.
............ ............ ....15 Corolla not spurred; fruit an elongate (10-20 cm) capsule with 2 curved beaks
............ ............ ....15 Corolla with a nectar spur; fruit < 3 cm long.
............ ............ ......16 Petals distinct; fruit a follicle
............ ............ ......16 Petals connate; fruit a capsule or a schizocarp of 3 1-seeded mericarps.
............ ............ ........17 Carpels 2; fruit a capsule; stamens 4
............ ............ ........17 Carpels 3; fruit a schizocarp of 3 1-seeded mericarps; stamens 8
............ ............ ..14 Corolla radially symmetrical, the petals distinct (fused and tubular in Ipomoea); fruit a capsule or a schizocarp consisting of a ring of 5-many 1-seeded mericarps.
............ ............ ..........18 Stem trailing; petals fused and tubular
............ ............ ..........18 Stem erect; petals separate.
............ ............ ............ 19 Stamens many, connate into a stamen tube; carpels 5-many, completely or only loosely fused; fruit a capsule or a schizocarp of 5-many mericarps borne in a ring; calyx often subtended by an epicalyx (an additional calyx-like, green, foliaceous whorl of bracts)
............ ............ ............ 19 Stamens 5 or 10, distinct; carpels 2 or 5, fused; fruit a capsule or a schizocarp of 5 1-seeded mericarps.
............ ............ ............ ..20 Fruit a schizocarp of 5 1-seeded mericarps; carpels 5; stamens 10
............ ............ ............ ..20 Fruit a capsule with 2 locules, loculicidal; carpels 2; stamens 5
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